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1.  Novel sensor scheduling and energy-efficient quantization for tracking target in wireless sensor networks  
   Guiyun LIU  Bugong XU《控制理论与应用(英文版)》,2013年第11卷第1期
   This paper focuses on sensor scheduling and information quantization issues for target tracking in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To reduce the energy consumption of WSNs, it is essential and effective to select the next tasking sensor and quantize the WSNs data. In existing works, sensor scheduling’ goals include maximizing tracking accuracy and minimizing energy cost. In this paper, the integration of sensor scheduling and quantization technology is used to balance the tradeoff between tracking accuracy and energy consumption. The main characteristic of the proposed schemes includes a novel filtering process of scheduling scheme, and a compressed quantized algorithm for extended Kalman filter (EKF). To make the algorithms more efficient, the proposed platform employs a method of decreasing the threshold of sampling intervals to reduce the execution time of all operations. A real tracking system platform for testing the novel sensor scheduling and the quantization scheme is developed. Energy consumption and tracking accuracy of the platform under different schemes are compared finally.    

2.  HierTrack: an energy-efficient cluster-based target tracking system forwireless sensor networks  
   Zhi-bo WANG  Zhi WANG  Hong-long CHEN  Jian-feng LI  Hong-bin LI  Jie SHEN《浙江大学学报:C卷英文版》,2013年第14卷第6期
   Target tracking is a typical and important application of wireless sensor networks(WSNs).Existing target tracking protocols focus mainly on energy efficiency,and little effort has been put into network management and real-time data routing,which are also very important issues for target tracking.In this paper,we propose a scalable cluster-based target tracking framework,namely the hierarchical prediction strategy(HPS),for energyefficient and real-time target tracking in large-scale WSNs.HPS organizes sensor nodes into clusters by using suitable clustering protocols which are beneficial for network management and data routing.As a target moves in the network,cluster heads predict the target trajectory using Kalman filter and selectively activate the next round of sensors in advance to keep on tracking the target.The estimated locations of the target are routed to the base station via the backbone composed of the cluster heads.A soft handoff algorithm is proposed in HPS to guarantee smooth tracking of the target when the target moves from one cluster to another.Under the framework of HPS,we design and implement an energy-efficient target tracking system,HierTrack,which consists of 36 sensor motes,a sink node,and a base station.Both simulation and experimental results show the efficiency of our system.    

3.  An energy-driven unequal clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks  被引次数:1
   Jiguo YU  Yingying QI  Guanghui WANG《控制理论与应用(英文版)》,2011年第9卷第1期
   Due to the limitation of energy resources, energy efficiency is a key issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Clustering is proved to be an important way to realize hierarchical topology control, which can improve the scalability and prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an energy-driven unequal clustering protocol (EDUC) for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed. EDUC includes an unequal clustering algorithm and an energy-driven adaptive cluster head rotation method. The unequal size of clusters can balance the energy consumption among clusters, and the energy-driven cluster head rotation method can achieve the balance of energy consumption among nodes within a cluster, which reduces the waste of energy. Simulation experiments show that EDUC balances the energy consumption well among the cluster heads and prolongs the network lifetime.    

4.  Dynamic Collaborative Support Vector Machine for Target Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks  
   WANG Xue WANG Sheng BI Daowei DING Liang《电子学报:英文版》,2008年第2期
   Target classification is a significant topic addressed in Wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The distributed learning for target classification is desired for highly-constrained WSN since the processing ability, energy and bandwidth are strictly limited. This paper presents a dynamic data fusion based collaborative Support vector machine (SVM) for target classification in WSN. With the collaboration of multiple sensor nodes, the dynamic collaborative SVM can independently select the optimal set of sensor nodes according to the estimated energy consumption and information contribution. Then the training process of SVM is incrementally carried out in the dynamic data fusion framework with the consideration of tradeoff between energy consumption and information contribution. Because of the purposeful sensor nodes selection strategy, the dynamic collaborative SVM can conquer the inevitable missing rate and false rate of samples in WSN and save the energy for prolonging the lifetime of WSN. Furthermore, the dynamic collaborative SVM can also improve the robustness in target classification, and achieve the tradeoff between the performance and the cost. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed dynamic collaborative SVM can effectively implement target classification in WSN. It is also verified that the proposed dynamic collaborative SVM has outstanding performance in energy efficiency and time delay.    

5.  Novel routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks  
   李晓阳  Henry Shi Li  宋玮《北京理工大学学报(英文版)》,2011年第20卷第3期
   An improved LEACH for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks is proposed.Nodes are distributed in a sensing area that is divided into a number of same equilateral hexagons.Heterogeneous nodes act as the cluster heads and ordinary nodes act as those cluster sensors in all clusters.The structure of WSNs is a two-layer structure.The upper layer consists of all cluster heads and the lower layer consists of all ordinary sensors managed by their corresponding cluster heads.The cluster heads and the ordinary sensors establish their pairwise keys respectively through utilizing different methods.The arithmetic balances energy expense among all kinds of nodes,saves the node energy,and prolongs the life of wireless sensor networks.Additionally,Analysis demonstrates that the security of wireless sensor networks has been improved obviously even with some heterogeneous nodes.    

6.  Dynamic cluster member selection method for multi-target tracking in wireless sensor network  被引次数:1
   CAI Zi-xing  WEN Sha  LIU Li-jue《中南工业大学学报(英文版)》,2014年第2期
   Multi-target tracking(MTT) is a research hotspot of wireless sensor networks at present.A self-organized dynamic cluster task allocation scheme is used to implement collaborative task allocation for MTT in WSN and a special cluster member(CM) node selection method is put forward in the scheme.An energy efficiency model was proposed under consideration of both energy consumption and remaining energy balance in the network.A tracking accuracy model based on area-sum principle was also presented through analyzing the localization accuracy of triangulation.Then,the two models mentioned above were combined to establish dynamic cluster member selection model for MTT where a comprehensive performance index function was designed to guide the CM node selection.This selection was fulfilled using genetic algorithm.Simulation results show that this method keeps both energy efficiency and tracking quality in optimal state,and also indicate the validity of genetic algorithm in implementing CM node selection.    

7.  Collaborative target tracking in WSNs using the combination of maximum likelihood estimation and Kalman filtering  
   Xingbo WANG  Huanshui ZHANG  Minyue FU《控制理论与应用(英文版)》,2013年第11卷第1期
   Target tracking using wireless sensor networks requires efficient collaboration among sensors to tradeoff between energy consumption and tracking accuracy. This paper presents a collaborative target tracking approach in wireless sensor networks using the combination of maximum likelihood estimation and the Kalman filter. The cluster leader converts the received nonlinear distance measurements into linear observation model and approximates the covariance of the converted measurement noise using maximum likelihood estimation, then applies Kalman filter to recursively update the target state estimate using the converted measurements. Finally, a measure based on the Fisher information matrix of maximum likelihood estimation is used by the leader to select the most informative sensors as a new tracking cluster for further tracking. The advantages of the proposed collaborative tracking approach are demonstrated via simulation results.    

8.  Collaborative tracking via particle filter in wireless sensor networks  
   Zhenya Yan  Baoyu Zheng  Li Xu  Shitang Li《电子科学学刊(英文版)》,2008年第25卷第3期
   Target tracking is one of the main applications of wireless sensor networks. Optimized computation and energy dissipation are critical requirements to save the limited resource of the sensor nodes. A framework and analysis for collaborative tracking via particle filter are presented in this paper Collaborative tracking is implemented through sensor selection, and results of tracking are propagated among sensor nodes. In order to save communication resources, a new Gaussian sum particle filter, called Gaussian sum quasi particle filter, to perform the target tracking is presented, in which only mean and covariance of mixands need to be communicated. Based on the Gaussian sum quasi particle filter, a sensor selection criterion is proposed, which is computationally much simpler than other sensor selection criterions. Simulation results show that the proposed method works well for target tracking.    

9.  Energy-balanced on demand clustering improved leach protocol for wireless sensor networks  
   KHAMISS A A  柴森春  张百海  李桥《北京理工大学学报(英文版)》,2016年第25卷第3期
   In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), appropriate topology control (TC) could efficiently balance the load among sensor nodes and extend network lifespan. Clustering is an effective topology control technique that could reduce energy consumption and provide scalability to WSNs. However, some clustering algorithms, including the traditional low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), don''t consider the residual energy and the communication distance. The energy consumption could dramatically increase in the case of long communication distance and high rate of control message exchange. In this paper we propose an energy-balanced clustering algorithm which considers the communication distance and the residual energy. Moreover the cluster head (CH) reselection is relevant to the current CH residual energy in order to reduce overheads. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm prolongs the lifetime of the WSN in comparison to the LEACH and a hybrid clustering approach (HCA).    

10.  Analysis on topology control boundary conditions in delay tolerant wireless sensor networks  
   李鲁群  李顼  沈学民  周熔《哈尔滨工业大学学报(英文版)》,2012年第19卷第3期
   In wireless sensor networks ( WSNs),nodes are often scheduled to alternate between working mode and sleeping mode from energy efficiency point of view.When delay is tolerable,it is not nccessary to pre...    

11.  Systematic energy-balanced cooperative transmission scheme in wireless sensor networks  
   YAO Li-ping  LI Xi  JI Hong  XU Quan-sheng《中国邮电高校学报(英文版)》,2012年第19卷第6期
   Energy efficiency is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks(WSNs).In order to minimize energy consumption and balance energy dissipation throughout the whole network,a systematic energy-balanced cooperative transmission scheme in WSNs is proposed in this paper.This scheme studies energy efficiency in systematic view.For three main steps,namely nodes clustering,data aggregation and cooperative transmission,corresponding measures are put forward to save energy.These measures are well designed and tightly coupled to achieve optimal performance.A half-controlled dynamic clustering method is proposed to avoid concentrated distribution of cluster heads caused by selecting cluster heads randomly and to get high spatial correlation between cluster nodes.Based on clusters built,data aggregation,with the adoption of dynamic data compression,is performed by cluster heads to get better use of data correlation.Cooperative multiple input multiple output(CMIMO) with an energy-balanced cooperative cluster heads selection method is proposed to transmit data to sink node.System model of this scheme is also given in this paper.And simulation results show that,compared with other traditional schemes,the proposed scheme can efficiently distribute the energy dissipation evenly throughout the network and achieve higher energy efficiency,which leads to longer network lifetime span.By adopting orthogonal space time block code(STBC),the optimal number of the cooperative transmission nodes varying with the percentage of cluster heads is also concluded,which can help to improve energy efficiency by choosing the optimal number of cooperative nodes and making the most use of CMIMO.    

12.  基于无线传感器网络的分散目标跟踪:实际测试平台的开发应用(英文)  被引次数:1
   Yue Khing Toh  XIAO Wendong  XIE Lihua《山东大学学报(工学版)》,2009年第39卷第1期
   In the real world, centralized tracking in a largescale wireless sensor network (WSN) may not be feasible due to the possible failure of fusion centre and the large communication delay in forwarding measurement data to the fusion centre. Distributed target tracking techniques can be employed by tasking sensor nodes near to the target to perform sensing, target state estimation and selection of future tasking sensor nodes. In this paper, the development and implementation of a prototype ultrasonic WSN testbed to demonstrate distributed target tracking using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is described. In the testbed, a mobile robot is used to simulate the moving target, and static/mobile sensor nodes are deployed to detect and track the target. The sensor nodes and robots are equipped with sonar and MICAZ to receive and process instructions. Experimental evaluation of a number of sensor scheduling schemes are reported which shows the superior tracking performance of our distributed competition based sensor scheduling scheme.    

13.  Dynamic Cluster Head for Lifetime Efficiency in WSN  被引次数:3
   Hesham Abusaimeh  Shuang-Hua Yang《国际自动化与计算杂志》,2009年第6卷第1期
   Saving energy and increasing network lifetime are significant challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we propose a mechanism to distribute the responsibility of cluster-heads among the wireless sensor nodes in the same cluster based on the ZigBee standard, which is the latest WSN standard. ZigBee supports ad hoc on-demand vector (AODV) and cluster-tree routing protocols in its routing layer. However, none of these protocols considers the energy level of the nodes in the network establishing process or in the data routing process. The cluster-tree routing protocol supports single or multi-cluster networks. However, each single cluster in the multi-cluster network has only one node acting as a cluster head. These cluster-heads are fixed in each cluster during the network lifetime. Consequently, using these cluster-heads will cause them to die quickly, and the entire linked nodes to these cluster-heads will be disconnected from the main network. Therefore, the proposed technique to distribute the role of the cluster head among the wireless sensor nodes in the same cluster is vital to increase the lifetime of the network. Our proposed technique is better in terms of performance than the original structure of these protocols. It has increased the lifetime of the wireless sensor nodes, and increased the lifetime of the WSN by around 50% of the original network lifetime.    

14.  Ant colony optimization for bearings-only maneuvering target tracking in sensors network  
   Benlian XU  Zhiquan WANG  Zhengyi WU《控制理论与应用(英文版)》,2007年第5卷第3期
   In this paper, the problem of bearings-only maneuvering target tracking in sensors network is investigated. Two objectives are proposed and optimized by the ant colony optimization (ACO), then two kinds of node searching strategies of the ACO algorithm are presented. On the basis of the nodes determined by the ACO algorithm, the interacting multiple models extended Kalman filter (IMMEKF) for the multi-sensor bearings-only maneuvering target tracking is introduced. Simulation results indicate that the proposed ACO algorithm performs better than the Closest Nodes method. Furthermore, the Strategy 2 of the two given strategies is preferred in terms of the requirement of real time.    

15.  Energy-efficient low-latency virtual cluster synchronization algorithm based on SMAC protocol in wireless sensor networks  
   何晨光  沙学军  张文彬  吴玮《哈尔滨工业大学学报(英文版)》,2012年第19卷第5期
   The MAC protocol design for wireless sensor networks has been researched and developed for decades. SMAC protocol is a famous energy-efficient MAC protocol. Based on SMAC protocol, we find that the boundary nodes in the cluster-shaped synchronization structure bring energy consumption seriously, and provide a virtual cluster aggregation (VCA) algorithm. Because the bounder node follows multiple schedules in one cycle, it may deplete earlier and cause segmentation in wireless sensor networks. The algorithm reduces energy consumption of boundary nodes and extends the lifetime of entire sensor network by merging different virtual clusters, but increases the data transmission delay. Because the sensor nodes have the fixed duty cycle, the larger the coverage area of network is, the greater the data transmission delay increases. We propose the dynamic duty cycle (DDC) algorithm to solve this effect. When the network load and data transmission delay increase, the DDC algorithm exponentially changes the duty cycle of the node to reduce latency. The simulation results show that the performance of SMAC with the VCA and DDC algorithm obtains improvement significantly.    

16.  Node correlation clustering algorithm for wireless multimedia sensor networks based on overlapped FoVs  
   ZHANG Qian-yan  WANG Ru-chuan  SHA Chao  HUANG Hai-ping《中国邮电高校学报(英文版)》,2013年第5期
   In this paper, a clustering algorithm is proposed based on the high correlation among the overlapped field of views for the wireless multimedia sensor networks. Firstly, by calculating the area of the overlapped field of views (FoVs) based on the gird method, node correlations have been obtained. Then, the algorithm utilizes the node correlations to partition the network region in which there are high correlation multimedia sensor nodes. Meanwhile, in order to minimize the energy consumption for transmitting images, the strategy of the cluster heads election is proposed based on the cost estimation, which consists of signal strength and residual energy as well as the node correlation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can balance the energy consumption and extend the network lifetime effectively.    

17.  A Compressed Sensing Based DV-Hop Location Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks  
   Bingnan Pei Hao Zhang Yidong Zhang Hongyan Wang《通讯和计算机》,2014年第3期
   A compressed sensing based DV-hop location algorithm is presented to improve the performance of the conventional DV-hop location algorithm in WSNs (wireless sensor networks). The sensor network can be divided into multiple grids. Compared with the grid number, the number of targets in the network is generally sparse. Therefore, the localization of the targets in the network can be transformed into a sparse signal reconstruction issue. Theoretical analysis and experimental results on the proposed algorithm show that it is able to greatly reduce the amount of data flow in the network, balance the load of communication, prolong the lifetime of the WSNs, and improve the target location accuracy, compared to the DV-hop location ones.    

18.  SR-MAC: A Low Latency MAC Protocol for Multi-Packet Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks  
   唐宏伟  曹建农  刘雪峰  孙彩霞《计算机科学技术学报》,2013年第28卷第2期
   Event detection is one of the major applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols are mainly optimized for the situation under which an event only generates one packet on a single sensor node. When an event generates multiple packets on a single node, the performance of these MAC protocols degrades rapidly. In this paper, we present a new synchronous duty-cycle MAC protocol called SR-MAC for the event detection applications in which multiple packets are generated on a single node. SR-MAC introduces a new scheduling mechanism that reserves few time slots during the SLEEP period for the nodes to transmit multiple packets. By this approach, SR-MAC can schedule multiple packets generated by an event on a single node to be forwarded over multiple hops in one operational cycle without collision. We use event delivery latency (EDL) and event delivery ratio (EDR) to measure the event detection capability of the SR-MAC protocol. Through detailed ns-2 simulation, the results show that SR-MAC can achieve lower EDL, higher EDR and higher network throughput with guaranteed energy efficiency compared with R-MAC, DW-MAC and PR-MAC.    

19.  An energy-efficient geographic routing based on cooperative transmission in wireless sensor networks  被引次数:1
   LI Bin  WANG WenJie  YIN QinYe  LI HongXiang  YANG Rong《中国科学:信息科学(英文版)》,2013年第56卷第7期
   In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient cooperative geographic routing (ECGR) to reach energy-efficient routing in wireless sensor networks (WSN). ECGR takes full advantage of cooperative diversity and geographic routing. At physical layer, cooperative nodes transmit the same packet in a cooperative way to achieve farther transmission distance of each hop without more energy consumption. While at the network layer, ECGR adaptively selects the appropriate cooperative nodes to form forwarding clusters to forward the packet to the destination when we consider energy consumption and geographic information of the sensor nodes. Meanwhile, in order to fully assess the energy consumption, we take circuit energy consumption of the sensor nodes into consideration. According to the description above, we increase the transmit distance of each hop; and thereby reducing and balancing the overall network energy consumption among nodes to extend the lifetime of the network.    

20.  A Tree-Based Data Collecting Network Structure for Wireless Sensor Networks  
   Chi-Tsun Cheng  Chi K. Tse  Francis C. M. Lau《中国电子科技》,2008年第6卷第3期
   In a sensor network with a large number of densely populated sensor nodes, a single target of interest may be detected by multiple sensor nodes simultaneously. Data collected from the sensor nodes are usually highly correlated, and hence energy saving using in-network data fusion becomes possible. A traditional data fusion scheme starts with dividing the network into clusters, followed by electing a sensor node as cluster head in each cluster. A cluster head is responsible for collecting data from all its cluster members, performing data fusion on these data and transmitting the fused data to the base station. Assuming that a sensor node is only capable of handling a single node-to-node transmission at a time and each transmission takes T time-slots, a cluster head with n cluster members will take at least nT time-slots to collect data from all its cluster members. In this paper, a tree-based network structure and its formation algorithms are proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed network structure can greatly reduce the delay in data collection.    

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