A real-time neutron radiography (RTNR) system and a high speed X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) system are compared for measurement of two-phase flow. Each system is used to determine the flow regime, and the void fraction distribution in a vertical annulus flow channel with particular attention on the temporal resolution of the systems and the time behaviour of the two-phase flow. The annulus flow channel is operated as a bubble column and measurements obtained for gas flow rates from 0.0 to 30.0 l/min. Both the RTNR and the X-CT systems show that the two-dimensional void fraction distribution can be obtained. The X-CT system is shown to have a superior temporal resolution capable of resolving the void fraction distribution in an (r,θ) plane in 4.0 ms. The RTNR system is shown to obtain void fraction distribution in a (r,z) plane in 33.0 ms. Void fraction distribution for bubbly flow and slug flow is determined. 相似文献

Eye observation was used to evaluate the segregation degree of asphalt pavement, which was not much creditable. To the asphalt pavement, road surface texture measuring method which has appeared recently can identify gradational segregation; but it can’t reflect the influence of the temperature segregation. However, using infrared temperature detector to evaluate the segregation must be taken during paving, which brings much inconvenience. In this paper, measuring the air voids distribution using non-nuclear density gauge to evaluate asphalt pavement segregation was introduced. Result shows that this method can directly reflect the comprehensive results of the two types of segregation in a high efficient and accurate way. Moreover, using the sketch map of segregation area can help to analyze the segregation reason visually. 相似文献

Asphalt concrete is the most widely used material for building the surface layer of pavements. It is a porous material that consists of a non-uniform arrangement of asphalt binder, aggregate particles and air voids. One of the primary factors controlling pavement performance is the fluid flow characteristics within the surface asphalt concrete layer.

This paper focuses on the numerical simulation of fluid flow in the three-dimensional (3-D) microstructure of asphalt concrete, and the calculation of permeability from the flow field. The asphalt concrete microstructure was captured using the non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique. X-ray CT images were processed in order to identify and retain interconnected air voids and eliminate isolated voids. This image processing enhanced the efficiency of the model as it does not have to solve for flow in isolated voids that do not contribute to fluid flow. The X-ray CT images were analyzed and the results were used to determine the relationship between air void distribution and permeability directional distribution or anisotropy.

The computed permeability values were found to have good correlation with the experimental measurements. The major and minor principal directions of the permeability tensor were found to correspond to the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The results indicated that the non-uniform spatial distribution of air voids created more open flow paths in the horizontal directional than the vertical direction, and hence was the much higher permeability in the horizontal directions. 相似文献

This paper is concerned with the prediction of the void fraction distribution in two-phase bubbly flows in fuel rod bundles. Special attention has been devoted to the phenomena which govern the void fraction distribution in the lateral direction of a channel. A two-fluid model of two-phase flow has been formulated and implemented into a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The model has been used for the prediction of the void distribution in three different channels: a circular channel (inside diameter (ID), 34.5 mm) with a single heated rod of 13.9 mm outside diameter (OD), and circular channels (ID, 71 mm) with six heated rods (13.8 and 13.9 mm OD each). The predicted axial and lateral avoid fraction distributions in subcooled and bulk boiling regions have been area averaged in three lateral zones and compared with experimental data: in all cases, satisfactory agreement between the predictions and measurements has been obtained. 相似文献

This paper addresses bubbly flow modeling within Venturi tubes and nozzles using the two-fluid model. The effects of non-drag forces as virtual mass and the so-called “transversal forces” such as lift and wall lubrication are investigated in the context of the two-fluid model. As expected, the transversal forces have an important influence on void distribution as long as the virtual mass affects the pressure drop along the contraction, which is the main parameter for the flow rate measurement. Models for the virtual mass and lift forces were implemented via user routines in commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, as the models embedded within these packages, specifically for virtual mass, were found not to be adequate for the purpose of this study. The models are validated against results from the literature and pressure drop measurements along a Venturi tube, developed in this work. Additionally, some experimental visualizations were used to make a qualitative comparison with predicted void distribution. 相似文献

The oxidation of iron in dry and wet O_{2} at 400-600 °C has been re-investigated using gravimetry, SEM/EDX, XRD and FIB. In the presence of O_{2}, water vapour accelerates iron oxidation at 500 and 600 °C. At 400 and 500 °C the magnetite layer is duplex and exposure to water vapour results in the formation of blades on top of a fine-grained hematite layer. At 600 °C it results in a surface without needles and blades. The increased oxidation rate at 500 and 600 °C is attributed to a smaller grain size in the hematite layer resulting in faster ion transport. 相似文献

The pore space of mono-sized spherical particle systems of increasing density is characterized by Delaunay empty spheres.
Periodic packings of densities ranging from 0.57 up to 0.70 are generated numerically by symmetric vibration. The Voronoi
diagrams of these packings are then computed with an algorithm based on the research of Delaunay empty spheres. The voids
distribution and the tortuosity of packings as a function of density are studied. As the density increases, the voids distribution
becomes more narrow. For partly ordered packings of high density, the voids distribution presents two peaks corresponding
to the size of Delaunay empty spheres of perturbed fcc or hcp packings. The tortuosity of disordered packings decreases slowly
with density. However, when the system becomes partly ordered, a large increase in tortuosity is observed. 相似文献