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1.
In future power grids where electricity flows bidirectionally, the essential problem is to maximize the total efficiency of distributed energy resources. In complicated and large‐scale systems such as modern power distribution networks, maximizing the efficiency of the entire system as a whole is extremely difficult. To solve the global optimization problem of such a complex network, this paper proposes an efficient distributed control method for future grid on the basis of tie‐set graph theory, where a tie‐set is a set of all the edges in a loop of a graph. On the basis of tie‐set graph theory, global optimization of an entire network can be realized as a result of local optimization in μ‐dimensional liner vector space, where μ is the nullity of the underlying graph of a power network. Although each tie‐set has its limited local information, an entire network is gradually optimized in an orderly manner because of the theoretical basis of a tie‐set graph. Simulation results of several thousand‐node networks demonstrate balanced allocation of dispersed energy resources and thus effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
The main aspect of this paper is to show that the stability of linear time‐variant systems cannot be estimated from the location of the eigenvalues. For this purpose, two simple time‐variant electrical circuits are presented, which have constant eigenvalues. As will be shown, the time‐variant circuits can be asymptotically stable although there is a positive eigenvalue and this circuit can be unstable despite negative eigenvalues only. The idea behind is a suited time‐variant state transformation of a linear time‐invariant system. An electrical interpretation of both systems and of state transformations allows for an energetic evaluation from an electrical point of view even though the analytical solution is not necessarily known. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Binary decision diagrams (BDDs) are the most frequently used data structure for the representation and handling of Boolean functions because of their excellent time and space efficiencies. In this article, a reversed BDD‐based pass transistor logic (PTL) logic synthesis is presented for low‐power and high‐performance circuits without exploiting the canonical property of BDDs. The procedure of the reversed BDD transformation into PTL is achieved by a one‐to‐one correspondence with the BDD node and PTL cell. Layouts are generated for the benchmark circuits and simulated in terms of power dissipation, propagation delay and area. The reversed BDD technique performs better in terms of area, delay and power dissipation due to the regularity, a reduced critical path, less interconnection wires, a multiplexer‐based construction of PTL circuits, and less switching activities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
A new and straightforward design procedure for simple canonical topologies of allpole, active‐RC, low‐selectivity band‐pass (BP) filters, with low sensitivity to component tolerances is presented. The procedure is primarily intended for discrete‐component, low‐power filter applications using just one amplifier for relatively high‐order filters. The design procedure starts out with an ‘optimized’ low‐pass (LP) prototype filter, yielding an ‘optimized’ BP filter, whereby the wealth of ‘optimized’ single‐amplifier LP filter designs can be exploited. Using a so‐called ‘lossy’ LP–BP transformation, closed‐form design equations for the design of second‐ to eighth‐order, single‐amplifier BP filters are presented. The low sensitivity, low power consumption, and low noise features of the resulting circuits, as well as the influence of the finite gain‐bandwidth product and component spread, are demonstrated for the case of a fourth‐order filter example. The optimized single‐opamp fourth‐order filter is compared with other designs, such as the cascade of optimized Biquads. Using PSpice with a TL081 opamp model, the filter performance is simulated and the results compared and verified with measurements of a discrete‐component breadboard filter using 1% resistors, 1% capacitors, and a TL081 opamp. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
This paper presents a general framework for identifying the optimum wind capacity to be integrated in a power system with interconnection lines. Wind generation is treated as negative demand, together with the load demand, which must be covered by the conventional power generation and the energy interchange with neighboring systems. Under the presumption that the time-varying wind and load together with the trading price with neighboring systems could be statistically modeled by specified probability distributions, a chance constrained programming (CCP) model is formulated to address the wind capacity planning problem. The objective is to maximize the yearly net profit of the entire power system subject to the operational constraints and the reliability requirement. Wind power curtailment and load shedding are allowed to improve the system flexibility but incur penalty costs. The optimization problem is solved using a hybrid intelligence algorithm incorporating Monte Carlo simulations, a neural network and a genetic algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed approach is verified by a case study on a given power system.  相似文献   
6.
The design of metering plans for power system state estimation is a classical, complex, combinatorial optimization problem, many times solved by a family of metaheuristic algorithms. This paper presents a methodology for designing reliable and robust metering systems, taking into account aspects, such as: observability; absence of critical data; possible changes in network configuration; loss of remote terminal units. To accomplish this task, a simple, practical value, constructive heuristic that considers inherent characteristics of the meter placement problem is proposed. Simulations with the IEEE 14, 30, and 118-bus test systems, as well as with part of a real Brazilian system, illustrate the performance of the proposed constructive approach. Regarding redundancy requisites, high quality metering plans are obtained without requiring a formal optimization technique. It is also shown that the proposed heuristic can be employed in conjunction with an optimization tool (a popular metaheuristic, e.g. ant colony optimization) to achieve even better results. Test results obtained in the paper are encouraging, as compared with those found in the technical literature.  相似文献   
7.
This paper presents a comparative study of reactive power control for isolated wind-diesel hybrid power system in three different cases with wind power generation by induction generator (IG), permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) and permanent-magnet synchronous generator. The synchronous generator (SG) is used with diesel engine set. A mathematical model of the system based on small signal analysis, is developed considering reactive power flow balance equations. The variable reactive power needed by the system is provided by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) when wind power generation is done by IG and PMIG. When permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used for wind power generation, the variable reactive power demand is fulfilled by a voltage source converter (VSC) which is on the load side. A new mathematical approximation model for VSC connected with PMSG is proposed such that the voltage source converter fulfills the increased reactive power requirement of load and also increases its active power equal to the increased input wind power. Proportional and integral (PI) gains of the STATCOM and VSC controllers are optimized using integral square error criterion (ISE). The dynamic responses of the system for small (1%) step increase in load reactive power with and without 1% step increase in input wind power are shown. The paper also shows the dynamic responses of the system for random step change in load reactive power plus random step change in input wind power. The MATLAB/SIMULINK environment is used for simulation.  相似文献   
8.
In this study, a dynamic interval-parameter optimization model (DIP-REM) has been developed for supporting long-term energy systems planning in association with GHG mitigation in the region of Liaoning province. The model can describe Liaoning province energy planning systems as networks of a series of energy flows, transferring extracted/imported energy resources to end users through a variety of conversion and transmission technologies over a number of periods and address the problem of GHG-emission reduction within a general energy planning systems framework under uncertainty. Two scenarios (including a reference case) are considered corresponding to different GHG-emission mitigation levels for in-depth analysis of interactions existing among energy, socio-economy and environment in the Liaoning province. Useful solutions for Liaoning province energy planning systems have been generated, reflecting trade-offs among energy-related, environmental and economic considerations. The results can not only provide optimal energy resource/service allocation and capacity-expansion plans, but also help decision-makers identify desired policies for GHG mitigation with a cost-effective manner in the region of Liaoning province. Thus, it can be used by decision makers as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of energy and environmental policies, regional development strategies and emission reduction measures within an integrated and dynamic framework.  相似文献   
9.
This paper provides a probabilistic method to assess the impact of wind turbines (WTs) integration into distribution networks within a market environment. Combined Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique and market-based optimal power flow (OPF) are used to maximize the social welfare by integrating demand side management (DSM) scheme considering different combinations of wind generation and load demand over a year. MCS is used to model the uncertainties related to the stochastic variations of wind power generation and load demand. The market-based OPF is solved by using step-controlled primal dual interior point method considering network constraints. The method is conceived for distribution network operators (DNOs) in order to evaluate the effect of WTs integration into the network. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with an 84-bus 11.4 kV radial distribution system.  相似文献   
10.
对电子公文收发系统的抵御攻击能力着手研究,分析并使用智能卡加强电子公文的安全管理.首先介绍了Hwang-Li方案抵御攻击的原理,分析其安全性的不足,并提出改进的方案,验证了抵御几种攻击的有效性.最后,在我校的公文收发系统中进行实践性检验.  相似文献   
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