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1.
In future power grids where electricity flows bidirectionally, the essential problem is to maximize the total efficiency of distributed energy resources. In complicated and large‐scale systems such as modern power distribution networks, maximizing the efficiency of the entire system as a whole is extremely difficult. To solve the global optimization problem of such a complex network, this paper proposes an efficient distributed control method for future grid on the basis of tie‐set graph theory, where a tie‐set is a set of all the edges in a loop of a graph. On the basis of tie‐set graph theory, global optimization of an entire network can be realized as a result of local optimization in μ‐dimensional liner vector space, where μ is the nullity of the underlying graph of a power network. Although each tie‐set has its limited local information, an entire network is gradually optimized in an orderly manner because of the theoretical basis of a tie‐set graph. Simulation results of several thousand‐node networks demonstrate balanced allocation of dispersed energy resources and thus effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
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Generation reserves are needed to maintain the real time balance between power supply and power demand. Because power is noninventoriable, power generation follows power demand. Demand for power varies considerably depending on the time of day, day of the week and season. The predictable portion of power demand is met by purchasing firm energy on a day ahead or real time market. The random unpredictable portion of demand is met by purchasing a set of online and offline generation reserves on an ancillary market. The total energy purchasing cost includes payments for firm energy and payments for generation reserves. The latter include fixed capacity payments for reserve generation capacities and variable payments for the random energy produced from these reserves. The main contribution of this paper is to present an optimization model that captures the dynamism in the selection of the dispatch interval to determine the amount of firm energy and reserve capacities given a set of market prices. This is done by explicitly including in the model the duration of the dispatch period and the frequency this decision is reevaluated. In this model the randomness of the demand is captured by using a Doubly Truncated Normal Distribution. The cost incurred to activate generation reserves is modeled as a Poisson process. The total model captures the price differences from using different reserve sources. An empirical example is presented to illustrate the cost benefits of using the method proposed in this research with two different strategies: a static strategy and a dynamic strategy. It is shown that dynamically setting generation reserves results in cost savings.  相似文献   
4.
In this study, a dynamic interval-parameter optimization model (DIP-REM) has been developed for supporting long-term energy systems planning in association with GHG mitigation in the region of Liaoning province. The model can describe Liaoning province energy planning systems as networks of a series of energy flows, transferring extracted/imported energy resources to end users through a variety of conversion and transmission technologies over a number of periods and address the problem of GHG-emission reduction within a general energy planning systems framework under uncertainty. Two scenarios (including a reference case) are considered corresponding to different GHG-emission mitigation levels for in-depth analysis of interactions existing among energy, socio-economy and environment in the Liaoning province. Useful solutions for Liaoning province energy planning systems have been generated, reflecting trade-offs among energy-related, environmental and economic considerations. The results can not only provide optimal energy resource/service allocation and capacity-expansion plans, but also help decision-makers identify desired policies for GHG mitigation with a cost-effective manner in the region of Liaoning province. Thus, it can be used by decision makers as an effective technique in examining and visualizing impacts of energy and environmental policies, regional development strategies and emission reduction measures within an integrated and dynamic framework.  相似文献   
5.
针对无线传感器网络分簇过程中簇头耗能过快问题,提出了一种综合节点剩余能量和节点位置进簇头选取的分布式数据收集算法.在每轮的簇头选取中,算法考虑了簇内节点的剩余能量和所有节点的平均剩余能量,并依据节点的位置优化簇头的选择.算法在保证网络最优簇头个数的同时,避免了能量较低的节点当选为簇头.仿真结果表明,本算法与LEACH和...  相似文献   
6.
基于风致振动机理的微型风能采集器可以将风能转换为电能,在无线传感等领域具有广阔应用前景.漩涡脱落频率与风速成正比,当漩涡脱落频率与微型风能采集器固有频率接近时,采集器有较高输出功率,因此为了在低风速环境应用风能采集器,需要降低其固有频率.引入质量块可以降低微型压电式风能采集器的固有频率,使其在较低风速下产生较高输出功率...  相似文献   
7.
主要针对无线传感网络经典分簇协议LEACH(Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy)中存在的三个使能量消耗过大的问题,提出了一种新的智能无线传感网络分簇路由算法DPSO-CR(Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization-Clustering Rou...  相似文献   
8.
为了分析多址干扰和节点干扰对CDMA无线传感器网络的影响,在考虑传输距离、传输速率、阴影效应、节点密度等影响的基础上,通过Matlab对误码率(BER)进行了仿真.仿真结果表明,CDMA在物理层对抵抗干扰和节约能量具有良好的性能.  相似文献   
9.
研究了Cs2[13Πu(v)]和Cs原子间的振动能量转移.利用激光感生荧光(LIF)探测Cs2[13Πu(v)]的弛豫过程,由时间分辨LIF的对数描绘得到振动态的有效寿命,从不同Cs原子密度下的有效寿命利用Stern-Volmer公式得到振动能级的弛豫率,速率系数随v的增加而增大.从相邻二振动能级的布居密度之比得到振动...  相似文献   
10.
<国民经济和社会发展第十一个五年规划纲要>提出了"十一五"期间单位国内生产总值能耗及主要污染物排放总量目标指标.作为耗能及排放大户的火力发电厂,以我国现有300MW直流锅炉运行概况.如何从机组启动操作、运行调整角度上进行优化,达到提高机组运行经济性、降低污染物排放量目标.  相似文献   
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