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1.
This paper aims to present a comprehensive technique to quantitatively assess the reliability of substation automation systems. The technique is based on the tie-sets methodology. In order to demonstrate the application of the proposed technique, a variety of substation automation architectures is first introduced. The associated reliability block diagrams as well as the exact system reliability are then given. The impacts and the degree of importance of various components on the reliability of substation automation systems are presented. Two suitable measures of importance are selected. The first is the Birnbaum’s measure used to determine the bottleneck of the system reliability. The second measure uses criticality importance to diagnose failures and generating repair or inspection checklists.  相似文献   
2.
This paper presents sub-optimal AGC regulator designs for a 2-area interconnected power system using constrained feedback control strategy. The power system with identical thermal plants consisting of non-reheat thermal turbines interconnected via parallel AC/DC links is considered for the investigations. The formulation of optimal AGC problem involves solution of non-linear matrix equations, which requires an appropriate computational technique to yield a solution with high speed and accuracy. The implementation of optimal AGC regulator requires monitoring of all the state variables of the system or state reconstruction, which may be undesirable from cost and complexity considerations. Due to these limitations of optimal AGC regulators, sub-optimal AGC regulators are designed based on the constrained feedback control strategy using the feedback of system states which are accessible and available for measurement. Different structures of state cost weighting matrix ‘Q’ are also considered in the study. The power system dynamic performance is analyzed based on time response plots achieved with the implementation of designed optimal and sub-optimal AGC regulators in the wake of 1% load disturbance in one of the areas.  相似文献   
3.
This paper presents the modified Fibonacci search based Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) scheme for a Solar Photovoltaic Array (SPVA) under partial shaded conditions. Partial shaded SPV modules produce several local maximum power points, which makes the tracking of the global maximum power a difficult task. Most of conventional tracking methods fail to work properly under these nonuniform insolation conditions. The real Fibonacci search based MPPT fails to track the global peak (GP) under partial shaded conditions. This paper improves the method by considering power ripple and wide search range so that the proposed method tracks GP for all the conditions. It is checked for different shading patterns through simulation and verified experimentally. In this paper, the advantage of using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is also presented. Fuzzy rules are optimized using genetic algorithm (GA). Comparative studies have been made for Proportional plus Integral (PI), nonoptimized FLC and GA optimized FLC. From the simulation results, it is observed that the fuzzy controller reduces error and it gives rapid response to environmental changes. Furthermore, it does not require any tuning of the parameters, unlike conventional PI controller, wherein the controller gain parameters needs to be changed when solar insolation changes.  相似文献   
4.
In this paper, a statistical signal processing technique, known as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for fault detection and diagnosis in the real Turbine system (V94.2 model) is suggested. The information of one of MAPNA’s power plants turbine system is utilized at first. In order to reduce the dimensionality of the data set, to identify the essential variables and to choose the most useful variables, PCA approach is applied. Then, the fault sources are diagnosed by ICA technique. The results indicate that suggested approach can distinguish main factors of abnormality, among many diverse parts of a typical turbine system. The presented results will show that suggested approach can avoid false alarms and fault misdiagnosis due to changes in operation conditions and model uncertainty. The presented results show the validity and effectiveness of ICA approach for faults detection and diagnosis in noisy states.  相似文献   
5.
Voltage collapse phenomena are highly affected by the limits of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) voltage that indirectly controls the amount of reactive power generation. Saturation of the limits of the AVR voltage of a unit may result in deterioration of voltage stability. In addition, in some cases when the power network is operating close to the voltage collapse point, the AVR voltage saturation of a unit can change the system voltages immediately from a stable to an unstable state. Thus, a dynamic voltage collapse leading to blackout is expected. This paper presents a steady state analysis of voltage instability associated to the AVR voltage saturation phenomena. For this purpose, a new methodology based on the predictor–corrector method is introduced to trace the total system equilibrium of the power system model. This methodology considers the AVR voltage limits of all generation units and computes both Saddle Node Bifurcation (SNB) and Saddle Limit Induced Bifurcation (SLIB) points. The New England 39-bus system is adopted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.  相似文献   
6.
The health of power transformer is important for the reliability of electrical power grid. There are various methods of evaluating the frequency spectrum to confirm the presence of an incipient fault. So, the accuracy of FRA method suggested by many researchers for predictive defections, has been discussed; and the robustness (efficiency, simplicity and fast diagnosis) of the proposed 2LFW as a substitution diagnostic process has been detailed and proved. It should be noted that the proposal is general and can be applied to different transformer, without any comparison to a reference signal. Furthermore the diagnosis can be done even for transformers in operation mode (in service), thus avoiding economical losses.  相似文献   
7.
Electricity distribution companies are to an increasing extent using risk assessment methods in their asset management practices. This paper presents an overall framework for risk-informed decision sup-port where simplified risk analysis methods are used for initial risk assessment, and quantitative risk analysis methods are used to perform more in-depth studies for selected problems. Quantitative risk assessment methods are far more laborious compared to simplified analyses, so it is important that such analyses are performed only to a limited number of risk problems.  相似文献   
8.
This paper presents stability analysis for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems and a method for designing robust fuzzy controllers to stabilize the uncertain nonlinear systems. First, the Takagi–Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model is adopted for fuzzy modeling of the uncertain nonlinear system. Next, new stability conditions for a generalized class of uncertain systems are derived from robust control techniques such Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). The derived stability conditions are used to analyze the stability of Takagi and Sugeno’s fuzzy control systems with uncertainty which can be regarded as a generalized class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The design method employs the so-called Parallel Design Approach (PDA). TS fuzzy systems are classified into three families based on the input matrices and a robust fuzzy controller’s synthesis procedure is given for each family. In each family, sufficient conditions are derived for robust stabilization in the sense of Taylor series stability, for the TS fuzzy system with parametric uncertainties. Important issues for the stability analysis and design are remarked. The effectiveness of the proposed controller design methodology is finally demonstrated through the two different models of Wind Energy Systems (WES) to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.  相似文献   
9.
A comprehensive assessment of the liquidity development in the Iberian power futures market managed by OMIP (“Operador do Mercado Ibérico de Energia, Pólo Português”) in its first 4 years of existence is performed. This market started on July 2006. A regression model tracking the evolution of the traded volumes in the continuous market is built as a function of 12 potential liquidity drivers. The only significant drivers are the traded volumes in OMIP compulsory auctions, the traded volumes in the “Over The Counter” (OTC) market, and the OTC cleared volumes in OMIP clearing house (OMIClear). Furthermore, the enrollment of financial members shows strong correlation with the traded volumes in the continuous market. OMIP liquidity is still far from the levels reached by the most mature European markets (Nord Pool and EEX). The market operator and its clearing house could develop efficient marketing actions to attract new entrants active in the spot market (energy intensive industries, suppliers, and small producers) as well as volumes from the opaque OTC market, and to improve the performance of existing illiquid products. An active dialogue with all the stakeholders (market participants, spot market operator, and supervisory authorities) will help to implement such actions.  相似文献   
10.
In this paper a current controller is used to reject the 100-Hz oscillation of the voltage of the photovoltaic field taking place in any grid connected system. With respect to the classical linear voltage control the current-based sliding-mode approach ensures a wider regulation band but, unfortunately, in presence of a fast irradiance variation the sliding conditions might be violated, so that the operating point, which should be the maximum power point, might not be the expected one. In order to prevent such a drawback, an appropriate voltage compensation loop is used to interface the current-based sliding mode with the Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm. Simulation and experimental results confirm the goodness of the proposed algorithm.  相似文献   
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