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Most insights about the effects of residential development on wildlife are based on research from urban and suburban areas. Yet exurban development is an increasingly prevalent form of human settlement in many parts of the world. Moreover because such development often occurs near the periphery of protected areas, it may have a disproportionate influence on native species. We examined bird community patterns in the Rocky Mountains of north-central Colorado across a gradient of exurban development to determine how avifauna responded to this form of settlement. Using fixed-radius point counts, we surveyed the occurrence and abundance of breeding birds in 11 developed sites and in 6 nearby undeveloped sites, all occurring in a forested matrix. We sampled ground-level habitat features at each survey point and derived digital land-cover maps from aerial photographs to characterize and quantify road development and building density. We found little evidence that land-cover varied with development intensity, yet bird abundance increased significantly with building density. Patterns of species richness were equivocal due to a highly influential observation. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished two axes that explained nearly 50% of the variation in the bird community and were strongly associated with road and building density. Weighted average analysis showed a marked decline in the abundance and richness of species that were insectivorous or nested in snags, suggesting that reductions in dead wood may have influenced the bird community. However, no conclusions could be drawn because dead wood was confounded with building density. Logistic regression of species occurrence and building density indicated that the incidence of some generalist species increased with building density, whereas the incidence of specialists decreased. Overall, our results suggest that development at low densities can favor habitat generalists. Similar patterns have been observed in more urbanized areas. If exurban development persists as a popular form of settlement in the Rocky Mountains, a regional plan for protecting avian habitat and limiting development dispersion will be necessary to maintain native bird communities.  相似文献
低密度住宅的规划设计与新技术的应用   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
本文对低密度住宅出现的原因作了简要分析,着重对《中国低密度住宅规划设计要点》及《低密度住宅新技术推广指南》进行了介绍,并对当前低密度住宅建设中的一些问题进行了阐释,以期对前尚处于起步阶段的低密度住宅建设能起到一定的借鉴作用。  相似文献
城市中心区高层低密度住宅发展现状及比较研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
在对低密度住宅小区概念较准确界定的基础上,对各种不同类型的低密度住宅进行比较分析,并结合实例,对位于城市中心区的高层低密度发展现状进行剖析,以期找出城市中心区高层低密度住宅的发展方向。  相似文献
高性能胶粉聚苯颗粒保温浆料的组成及性能研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
胶粉聚苯颗粒保温浆料作为胶粉聚苯颗粒外墙外保温系统的主要组成部分,其性能对整个系统的性能有着重要影响。通过大量试验,研究了胶粉聚苯颗粒保温浆料的组分对其性能的影响,并在此基础上得到低密度、低导热系数、高抗拉强度和高软化系数的胶粉聚苯颗粒保温浆料的优化配合比组成。同时,利用混凝土温度线膨胀系数测定仪对胶粉聚苯颗粒保温浆料在湿热状态下的性能进行了初步测试和研究。  相似文献
黄建中  白海 《华中建筑》2002,20(4):64-67
该文简要介绍了浙江新昌“阳光翠庭”住宅区的规划和建设设计方案,希望能为发展中的城郊低密度住宅区的规划和建筑设计提供参考。  相似文献
从函馆西部历史地区修复项目看城市的复兴   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
由点向面的开发,低密度的城市容积率,当地资本和土地的充分利用,以及系统型基本规划的具体引导等设计概念和步骤,方法,成功地再生了一个城市地区。  相似文献
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Long-term arsenic exposure has been linked to increased risk for hypertension; however, little is known whether a previous exposure has lingering effects on hypertension after the exposure being reduced significantly for decades. The study cohort was established in 1990 in an arseniasis-endemic area of 3 villages — Homei, Fuhsin, and Hsinming in Putai Township located on the southwestern coast of Taiwan, where residents were exposed to artesian well water (median level = 700 to 930 μg/L) until early 1970s. The original cohort consisted of 490 non-hypertensive residents over 30-yrs-old and 352 of them were successfully followed up in 2002/03. Arsenic concentrations in the artesian well water consumed by residents during 1960s were used to indicate the previous exposure while urinary arsenic species measured in 2002/3 was used to represent current exposure. Hypertension incidences were 27.4, 65.6, and 69.1, per 1000 person-years for men aged 35-49, 50-64, and 65-74 years, respectively being higher than the corresponding rates of 25.1, 46.1, and 57.2 in a community-based longitudinal study. Cancer was the major cause of the total deaths (17/30 = 57%). Diastolic blood pressure was shown to increase with an increased cumulative arsenic ingestion from drinking water (β = 0.27, p < 0.001). The incidence was increased by 2.43-fold in subjects of As(V) ≥ 2.67 μg/g creatinine as compared to those of As(V) < 1.20 μg/g creatinine (the third vs. first tertile; p = 0.047) after adjustment for conventional risk factors. This study suggests that three decades after cessation of drinking artesian well water, residents of the endemic area are still at increased risk for developing hypertension, particularly those who excrete high amounts of As(V).  相似文献
高层住区环境景观发展现状及问题研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
赵衡宇 《华中建筑》2008,26(3):113-115
高层住区是城市用地集约化发展的必然趋势,正日益成为大中城市主流居住模式,其住区环境在空间状态、功能使用、技术特征等较多方面呈现出与低、多层住居环境大不相同的特点,也给环境景观营造带来了挑战。该文从高层住区环境的基本现状特征入手,分析其利弊条件,指出当前发展问题,提出解决办法,以提供借鉴和依据.  相似文献
动物蛋白发泡剂制造低容重发泡保温砂浆的研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
合成了一种动物蛋白发泡剂,并用其制备了低容重的发泡保温砂浆。探讨了水泥、粉煤灰、动物蛋白泡沫以及空心玻璃微珠等组分掺量对低容重发泡保温砂浆性能的影响,确定了各组分的较适宜掺量。在此条件下制得了低容重发泡保温砂浆,其容重为250~350 kg/m3,抗压强度为0.23~0.80 MPa,导热系数在0.06~0.08 W/m.K。  相似文献
A synthetic feed, containing acetate as the only carbon source, was used to start-up four different anaerobic expanded-bed reactors containing three different types of microbial attachment media. The media types used were low-density anthracite, granular activated carbon (GAC) and two sizes of sand. All media types were of the same average diameter, 0.7 mm, except for a smaller sand, 0.35 mm. These media types were chosen to compare surface roughness, macroscopic shear stresses due to upflow velocity and sphericity. The 0.7 mm sand required the greatest upflow velocity, 16 cm/s, while the other reactors had upflow velocities of 5.5–6.0 cm/s. Sand had the least surface roughness and GAC had the roughest surface, while anthracite had the most angular shape. At steady-state, the GAC reactor retained 3.75–10 times the attached biomass retained on the other media tested and the GAC reactor accumulated biomass at a faster rate during start-up. Shear losses reflected the biomass accumulation with the two sand and anthracite media having shear loss coefficients 6–20 times greater than that of the GAC medium. Sand induced the formation of sludge granules in both sand reactors with two species of methanogens and stability of the sludge blankets was critical to reactor performance. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that attached growth developed in crevices where biomass was protected from shear forces. Attached growth on the sand and anthracite media was located only in crevices, while the GAC medium is completely covered with crevices and biofilm developed on the entire GAC particle. Surface roughness was critical to biofilm development with the rougher surface providing the better attachment medium.  相似文献
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