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1.
边坡位移矢量场与失稳定时预报试验研究   总被引:9,自引:5,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
 以1985 年6 月12 日凌晨长江三峡新滩滑坡为例进行了工程地质力学白光散斑模型试验, 用白光散斑照相技术和自动记录仪测量模型表面的位移矢量场, 模型试验过程为1 420m in, 破坏前位移量为21. 20mm。依据位移2时间相关关系和边坡模型滑面的抗剪强度,分别用斋藤法、灰色系统预测理论和有限单元法进行了中长期定时预报, 预报的失稳时间分别为1 395, 1 435 和1 415m in, 与试验模型实际破坏的时间基本一致。  相似文献
2.
三峡库区滑坡发生概率与降水条件的关系   总被引:9,自引:2,他引:7  
三峡库区位于长江上游,沿江两岸多为山地地形,滑坡灾害发生频繁,尤其是大、中型滑坡比较发育。这些滑坡灾害数量多、分布广、规模大,对当地的经济建设和生命财产造成了很大的危害,如何对滑坡进行有效的预测预报成为滑坡减灾防灾的关键。降雨是触发三峡库区滑坡的重要外动力因素之一。研究了三峡库区降雨型滑坡(体积≥104 m3)的发生时间与降水条件的关系,通过对该区112个滑坡–降雨事件进行数据统计和相关性分析,表明最大24 h雨强可作为降雨诱发滑坡的有效预报因子。基于易滑度分区的滑坡概率预报思路,根据三峡库区的地形地貌、地质构造和岩性组合等特点,初步将三峡库区分为A,B两个预报区,利用统计方法得出了各区在不同降水条件下滑坡的发生概率。结果表明,由于地质环境因素的不同,两区滑坡的发生概率具有明显差异,表明两区降雨诱发滑坡可能存在不同的机理。基于易滑度精细分区的降雨概率预报方法可望实现对突发性滑坡进行实时有效的预报。  相似文献
3.
草坪常见病害及其综合防治技术   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
草坪草的生长过程中,常会受到各种病原菌的侵染和危害,从而严重影响草坪的整体观赏价值和使用价值.通过阐述草坪上发生的常见病害种类及其发生特点,并针对病害发生的特点提出防治意见,以期对城市绿化的养护和草坪病害的研究与防治具有一定的参考价值.  相似文献
4.
岩体结构面产状的综合模糊聚类分析   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
在岩体的力学和水力学分析中,岩体结构面产状的分析是极为重要的基础工作。传统的结构面产状图形分析较粗糙,因此模糊聚类方法得到了一定的应用。分析了模糊等价聚类方法和模糊软划分聚类方法在岩体结构面产状分析中的优缺点,并将上述2种方法结合起来形成岩体结构面产状的综合模糊聚类分析方法,给出具体的计算方法和过程。实例分析表明,结构面产状综合模糊聚类分析方法对结构面产状的分类合理,结果可靠,可根据实际问题灵活运用。  相似文献
5.
旅游交通设施协同设计的理念探讨   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
孙莉芬  张席洲 《规划师》2005,21(7):98-100
根据协同学原理和共生原理,城市设计应寻找种最优的动态协调方法,以达到社会、经济和环境效益的动态综合平衡。这种动态协调不仅指系统内部,更包括系统本身与外部环境在时间和空间上的协调,这便是协同。运用旅游交通设施协同设计理念,在宏观上应具有绿道意识,在中观上应把握“文脉”原则,在微观上应注重极富人情的设计。  相似文献
6.
Occurrence and removal efficiencies of 20 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including antibiotics, hormones, and several other miscellaneous pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antiepileptics, antilipidemics, antihypertensives, antiseptics, and stimulants) were investigated in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Ulsan, the largest industrial city of Korea. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that acetaminophen, atenolol and lincomycin were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 10 μg/L in the sewage influent. In the WWTPs, the concentrations of analgesic acetaminophen, stimulant caffeine, hormones estriol and estradiol decreased by over 99%. On the contrary, the antibiotic sulfamethazine, the antihypertensive metoprolol, and the antiepileptic carbamazepine exhibited removal efficiencies below 30%. Particularly, removal of antibiotics was observed to vary between − 11.2 and 69%. In the primary treatment (physico-chemical processes), the removal of pharmaceuticals was insignificant (up to 28%) and removal of majority of the pharmaceuticals occurred during the secondary treatment (biological processes). The compounds lincomycin, carbamazepine, atenolol, metoprolol, and triclosan showed better removal in WWTPs employing modified activated sludge process with co-existence of anoxic-oxic condition. Further investigation into the design and operational aspects of the biological processes is warranted for the efficient removal of PPCPs, particularly antibiotics, to secure healthy water resource in the receiving downstream, thereby ensuring a sustainable water cycle management.  相似文献
7.
8.
Estimations of the probability of fire occurrences in buildings   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Fire occurrences in a particular building are really rare events. It is assumed that fires occur in accordance with the Poisson process and the number of fire occurrences in time interval can be modeled by a Poisson distribution. Using data such as the numbers of annual fire occurrences and building floor area the probability of fire occurrence in different occupancies can be estimated. In addition, the relation between the numbers of fire occurrence and the time of fire occurrence are clearly discussed. Investigations for different groups of building occupancy are illustrated in this research. Based on mean fire ignition rates and floor areas of different occupancies results show the ranking order regarding annual fire ignition per unit floor area among these occupancies. Industrial occupancy has the highest value of annual fire ignition rate, followed by residential occupancy. The rate of fire ignition only increases in public occupancy in Taiwan.  相似文献
9.
遗传算法在确定钻孔裂缝产状中的应用   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0  
精确确定钻孔内裂缝产状是地应力测量和微观构造研究中的一项重要工作。利用遗传算法的反演拟合确定各种规则形态和不规则复杂形态钻孔裂纹的产状,提供了确定裂缝产状的一种效果较好的具有通用性的反演程序。  相似文献
10.
The occurrence of 31 selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Korean surface waters was investigated. The area was selected since there is a lack of information in the Seoul area on the suspected contamination of rivers by micropollutants, although over 99% of drinking water is produced from surface waters in this area that has a population of approximately 15 million inhabitants. Samples were collected from upstream/downstream and effluent-dominated creeks along the Han River, Seoul (South Korea) and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Most target compounds were detected in both the Han River samples (63%) and the effluent-dominated creek samples (79%). Iopromide, atenolol, TCPP, TECP, musk ketone, naproxen, DEET, carbamazepine, caffeine, and benzophenone were frequently detected in both river and creek samples, although the mean concentrations in effluent-dominated creek samples (102 ng/L-3745 ng/L) were significantly higher than those in river samples (56 ng/L-1013 ng/L). However, the steroid hormones 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, progesterone, and testosterone, were not detected (< 1 ng/L) in both the river and creek samples. Numerous target compounds (15) were found to be positively correlated (over 0.8) to the conventional water quality parameters (chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and ultraviolet absorbance). Results of this study provide increasing evidence that certain EDCs and PPCPs commonly occur in the Han River as the result of wastewater outfalls.  相似文献
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