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1.
用自燃点法对硝酸戊酯和硝酸异辛酯的性能进行了试验研究。结果表明:两种添加剂均能显著降低柴油的自燃点和提高柴油十六烷值,硝酸戊酯的性能优于硝酸异辛酯,两者复合使用时,硝酸戊酯和硝酸异辛酯之间存在对抗效应。  相似文献
2.
In order to simulate an accidental hydrogen release from the high pressure pipe system of a hydrogen facility a systematic study on the nature of transient hydrogen jets into air and their combustion behavior was performed at the KIT hydrogen test site HYKA. Horizontal unsteady hydrogen jets from a reservoir of 0.37 dm3 with initial pressures of up to 200 bar have been investigated. The hydrogen jets released via round nozzles 3, 4, and 10 mm were ignited with different ignition times and positions. The experiments provide new experimental data on pressure loads and heat releases resulting from the deflagration of hydrogen–air clouds formed by unsteady turbulent hydrogen jets released into a free environment. It is shown that the maximum pressure loads occur for ignition in a narrow position and time window. The possible hazard potential arising from an ignited free transient hydrogen jet is described.  相似文献
3.
A two-dimensional (2-D) simulation of spontaneous ignition of high-pressure hydrogen in a length of duct is conducted to explore ignition mechanisms. The present study adopts a 2-D rectangular duct and focuses on effects of the initial diaphragm shape on spontaneous ignition. The Navier–Stokes equations with a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism are solved in a manner of direct numerical simulation. The detailed mechanisms of spontaneous ignitions are discussed for each initial diaphragm shape. For a straight diaphragm, ignition only occurs near the wall owing to the adiabatic wall condition, while three ignition events are identified for a greatly deformed diaphragm: ignition due to reflection of leading shock wave at the wall, hydrogen penetration into shock-heated air near the wall, and deep penetration of hydrogen into shock-heated air behind the leading shock wave.  相似文献
4.
This paper describes a large eddy simulation model of hydrogen spontaneous ignition in a T-shaped channel filled with air following an inertial flat burst disk rupture. This is the first time when 3D simulations of the phenomenon are performed and reproduced experimental results by Golub et al. (2010). The eddy dissipation concept with a full hydrogen oxidation in air scheme is applied as a sub-grid scale combustion model to enable use of a comparatively coarse grid to undertake 3D simulations. The renormalization group theory is used for sub-grid scale turbulence modelling. Simulation results are compared against test data on hydrogen release into a T-shaped channel at pressure 1.2–2.9 MPa and helped to explain experimental observations. Transitional phenomena of hydrogen ignition and self-extinction at the lower pressure limit are simulated for a range of storage pressure. It is shown that there is no ignition at storage pressure of 1.35 MPa. Sudden release at pressure 1.65 MPa and 2.43 MPa has a localised spot ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture that quickly self-extinguishes. There is an ignition and development of combustion in a flammable mixture cocoon outside the T-shaped channel only at the highest simulated pressure of 2.9 MPa. Both simulated phenomena, i.e. the initiation of chemical reactions followed by the extinction, and the progressive development of combustion in the T-shape channel and outside, have provided an insight into interpretation of the experimental data. The model can be used as a tool for hydrogen safety engineering in particular for development of innovative pressure relief devices with controlled ignition.  相似文献
5.
The potential for particulates entrained in hydrogen releases to generate electrostatic charge and induce electrostatic discharge ignitions was investigated. A series of tests were performed in which hydrogen was released through a 3.175-mm diameter orifice from an initial pressure of 140 bar. Electrostatic field sensors were used to characterize the electrification of known quantities of iron oxide particulates deliberately entrained in the release. The ignition experiments focused on using charged particulates to induce spark discharges from isolated conductors and corona discharges. A total of 12 ignition events were observed. The results show that electrification of entrained particulates is a viable self-ignition mechanism of hydrogen releases.  相似文献
6.
Spontaneous ignition of a pressurized hydrogen release has important implications in the risk assessment of hydrogen installations and design of safety measures. In real accident scenarios, an obstacle may be present close to the release point. Relatively little is known about the effect of such an obstacle on the salient features of highly under-expanded hydrogen jets and its spontaneous ignition.In the present study, the effect of a thin flat obstacle on the spontaneous ignition of a direct pressurized hydrogen release is investigated using a 5th-order WENO scheme and detailed chemistry. The numerical study has revealed that, for the conditions studied, the presence of the obstacle plays an important role in quenching the flame following spontaneous ignition for the release conditions considered.  相似文献
7.
The aim of this study is to gain an insight into the physical phenomena underlying the spontaneous ignition of hydrogen following a sudden release from high-pressure storage and transition to sustained jet fire. The modelling and large-eddy simulation (LES) of the spontaneous ignition dynamics in a tube with a non-inertial rupture disk separating the high-pressure hydrogen storage and the atmosphere is described. Numerical experiments confirmed that due to the stagnation conditions a chemical reaction first commences in the tube boundary layer, and subsequently propagates throughout the tube cross-section. The dynamics of flame formation outside the tube, simulated by the LES model, has reproduced the combustion patterns, including vortex induced “flame separation”, which have been experimentally observed by high-speed photography. It is concluded that the LES model can be applied for hydrogen safety engineering, e.g. for the development of innovative pressure relief devices.  相似文献
8.
Colorless distributed combustion (CDC) investigated here is focused on gas turbine combustion applications due to its significant benefits for, much reduced NOx emissions and noise reduction, and significantly improved pattern factor. CDC is characterized by distributed reaction zone of combustion which leads to uniform thermal field and avoidance of hot spot regions to provide significant improvement in pattern factor, lower sound levels and reduced NOx emission. Mixing between the combustion air and product gases to form hot and diluted oxidant prior to its mixing with the fuel is critical so that one must determine the most suitable mixing conditions to minimize the ignition delay. Spontaneous ignition of the fuel occurs to provide distributed reaction combustion conditions. The above requirements can be met with different configuration of fuel and air injections with carefully characterized flow field distribution within the combustion zone. This study examines four different sample configurations to achieve colorless distributed combustion conditions that reveal no visible color of the flame. They include a baseline diffusion flame configuration and three other configurations that provide conditions close to distributed combustion conditions. For all four modes same fuel and air injection diameters are used to examine the effect of flow field configuration on combustion characteristics. The results are compared from the four different configurations on flow field and fuel/air mixing using numerical simulations and with experiments using global flame signatures, exhaust emissions, acoustic signatures, and thermal field. Both numerical simulations and experiments are performed at a constant heat load of 25 kW, using methane as the fuel at atmospheric pressure using normal temperature air and fuel. Lower NOx and CO emissions, better thermal field uniformity, and lower acoustic levels have been observed when the flame approached CDC mode as compared to the baseline case of a diffusion flame. The reaction zone is observed to be uniformly distributed over the entire combustor volume when the visible flame signatures approached CDC mode.  相似文献
9.
The issue of spontaneous ignition of highly pressurized hydrogen release is of important safety concern, e.g. in the assessment of risk and design of safety measures. This paper reports on recent numerical investigation of this phenomenon through releases via a length of tube. This mimics a potential accidental scenario involving release through instrument line. The implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) approach was used with the 5th-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme. A mixture-averaged multi-component approach was used for accurate calculation of molecular transport. The thin flame was resolved with fine grid resolution and the autoignition and combustion chemistry were accounted for using a 21-step kinetic scheme.The numerical study revealed that the finite rupture process of the initial pressure boundary plays an important role in the spontaneous ignition. The rupture process induces significant turbulent mixing at the contact region via shock reflections and interactions. The predicted leading shock velocity inside the tube increases during the early stages of the release and then stabilizes at a nearly constant value which is higher than that predicted by one-dimensional analysis. The air behind the leading shock is shock-heated and mixes with the released hydrogen in the contact region. Ignition is firstly initiated inside the tube and then a partially premixed flame is developed. Significant amount of shock-heated air and well developed partially premixed flames are two major factors providing potential energy to overcome the strong under-expansion and flow divergence following spouting from the tube.Parametric studies were also conducted to investigate the effect of rupture time, release pressure, tube length and diameter on the likelihood of spontaneous ignition. It was found that a slower rupture time and a lower release pressure will lead to increases in ignition delay time and hence reduces the likelihood of spontaneous ignition. If the tube length is smaller than a certain value, even though ignition could take place inside the tube, the flame is unlikely to be sufficiently strong to overcome under-expansion and flow divergence after spouting from the tube and hence is likely to be quenched.  相似文献
10.
Numerical simulations have been carried out for spontaneous ignition in the sudden release of pressurized hydrogen into air. A mixture-averaged multi-component approach was used for accurate calculation of molecular transport. Spontaneous ignition and combustion chemistry were accounted for using a 21-step kinetic scheme. To reduce false numerical diffusion, extremely fine meshes were used along with the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) method in which convective terms are solved separately from the other terms.  相似文献
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