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1.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are typically designed as a two-chamber system with the bacteria in the anode chamber separated from the cathode chamber by a polymeric proton exchange membrane (PEM). Most MFCs use aqueous cathodes where water is bubbled with air to provide dissolved oxygen to electrode. To increase energy output and reduce the cost of MFCs, we examined power generation in an air-cathode MFC containing carbon electrodes in the presence and absence of a polymeric proton exchange membrane (PEM). Bacteria present in domestic wastewater were used as the biocatalyst, and glucose and wastewater were tested as substrates. Power density was found to be much greater than typically reported for aqueous-cathode MFCs, reaching a maximum of 262 +/- 10 mW/m2 (6.6 +/- 0.3 mW/L; liquid volume) using glucose. Removing the PEM increased the maximum power density to 494 +/- 21 mW/m2 (12.5 +/- 0.5 mW/L). Coulombic efficiency was 40-55% with the PEM and 9-12% with the PEM removed, indicating substantial oxygen diffusion into the anode chamber in the absence of the PEM. Power output increased with glucose concentration according to saturation-type kinetics, with a half saturation constant of 79 mg/L with the PEM-MFC and 103 mg/L in the MFC without a PEM (1000 omega resistor). Similar results on the effect of the PEM on power density were found using wastewater, where 28 +/- 3 mW/m2 (0.7 +/- 0.1 mW/L) (28% Coulombic efficiency) was produced with the PEM, and 146 +/- 8 mW/m2 (3.7 +/- 0.2 mW/L) (20% Coulombic efficiency) was produced when the PEM was removed. The increase in power output when a PEM was removed was attributed to a higher cathode potential as shown by an increase in the open circuit potential. An analysis based on available anode surface area and maximum bacterial growth rates suggests that mediatorless MFCs may have an upper order-of-magnitude limit in power density of 10(3) mW/m2. A cost-effective approach to achieving power densities in this range will likely require systems that do not contain a polymeric PEM in the MFC and systems based on direct oxygen transfer to a carbon cathode.  相似文献
2.
Hydrogen can be recovered by fermentation of organic material rich in carbohydrates, but much of the organic matter remains in the form of acetate and butyrate. An alternative to methane production from this organic matter is the direct generation of electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Electricity generation using a single-chambered MFC was examined using acetate or butyrate. Power generated with acetate (800 mg/L) (506 mW/m2 or 12.7 mW/ L) was up to 66% higher than that fed with butyrate (1000 mg/L) (305 mW/m2 or 7.6 mW/L), demonstrating that acetate is a preferred aqueous substrate for electricity generation in MFCs. Power output as a function of substrate concentration was well described by saturation kinetics, although maximum power densities varied with the circuit load. Maximum power densities and half-saturation constants were Pmax = 661 mW/m2 and Ks = 141 mg/L for acetate (218 ohms) and Pmax = 349 mW/m2 and Ks = 93 mg/L for butyrate (1000 ohms). Similar open circuit potentials were obtained in using acetate (798 mV) or butyrate (795 mV). Current densities measured for stable power outputwere higher for acetate (2.2 A/m2) than those measured in MFCs using butyrate (0.77 A/m2). Cyclic voltammograms suggested that the main mechanism of power production in these batch tests was by direct transfer of electrons to the electrode by bacteria growing on the electrode and not by bacteria-produced mediators. Coulombic efficiencies and overall energy recovery were 10-31 and 3-7% for acetate and 8-15 and 2-5% for butyrate, indicating substantial electron and energy losses to processes other than electricity generation. These results demonstrate that electricity generation is possible from soluble fermentation end products such as acetate and butyrate, but energy recoveries should be increased to improve the overall process performance.  相似文献
3.
The maximum power generated in a single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) has previously been shown to increase when the spacing between the electrodes is decreased from 4 to 2 cm. However, the maximum power from a MFC with glucose (500 mg/L) decreased from 811 mW/ m2 (R(ex) = 200 omega, Coulombic efficiency of CE = 28%) to 423 mW/m2 (R(ex) = 500 omega, CE = 18%) when the electrode spacing was decreased from 2 to 1 cm (batch mode operation, power normalized by cathode projected area). This decrease in power was unexpected as the internal resistance decreased from 35 omega (2-cm spacing) to 16 omega (1-cm spacing). However, providing advective flow through the porous anode toward the cathode substantially increased power, resulting in the highest maximum power densities yet achieved in an air-cathode system using glucose or domestic wastewater as substrates. For glucose, with a 1-cm electrode spacing and flow through the anode with continuous flow operation of the MFC, the maximum power increased to 1540 mW/m2 (51 W/m3) and the CE increased to 60%. Using domestic wastewater (255 +/- 10 mg of COD/L), the maximum power density was 464 mW/m2 (15.5 W/m3; CE = 27%). Although flow through the anode could lead to plugging, especially for particulate substrates such as domestic wastewater, the system was operated using glucose for over 42 days without clogging. These results show that power output in this air-cathode single-chamber MFC can be increased by reducing the electrode spacing if the reactors are operated in continuous flow mode with advective flow through the anode toward the cathode.  相似文献
4.
有机肥与化肥配施对烤烟品质的影响   总被引:19,自引:2,他引:17  
在等氮、磷、钾条件下,有机肥与化肥配施对烟叶化学成分含量无不良影响,各施肥处理烟叶主要化学成分均属于协调范围,其中油饼及绿肥处理烟叶的协调性较牛粪好。各处理烟叶评吸结果差异不明显,配施对烟叶烟气质量无不良影响,不会增大刺激性及杂气。  相似文献
5.
Cathode catalysts and binders were examined for their effect on power densities in single chamber, air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Chronopotentiometry tests indicated thatthe cathode potential was only slightly reduced (20-40 mV) when Pt loadings were decreased from 2 to 0.1 mg cm(-2), and that Nafion performed better as a Pt binder than poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). Replacing the precious-metal Pt catalyst (0.5 mg cm(-2); Nafion binder) with a cobalt material (cobalt tetramethylphenylporphyrin, CoTMPP) produced slightly improved cathode performance above 0.6 mA cm(-2), but reduced performance (<40 mV) at lower current densities. MFC fed batch tests conducted for 35 cycles (31 days) using glucose showed that replacement of the Nafion binder used for the cathode catalyst (0.5 mg of Pt cm(-2)) with PTFE reduced the maximum power densities (from 400 +/- 10 to 480 +/- 20 mW m(-2) to 331 +/- 3 to 360 +/- 10 mW m(-2)). When the Pt loading on cathode was reduced to 0.1 mg cm(-2), the maximum power density of MFC was reduced on average by 19% (379 +/- 5 to 301 +/- 15 mW m(-2); Nafion binder). Power densities with CoTMPP were only 12% (369 +/- 8 mW m(-2)) lower over 25 cycles than those obtained with Pt (0.5 mg cm(-2); Nafion binder). Power densities obtained using with catalysts on the cathodes were approximately 4 times more than those obtained using a plain carbon electrode. These results demonstrate that cathodes used in MFCs can contain very little Pt, and that the Pt can even be replaced with a non-precious metal catalyst such as a CoTMPP with only slightly reduced performance.  相似文献
6.
Power density, electrode potential, coulombic efficiency, and energy recovery in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined as a function of solution ionic strength, electrode spacing and composition, and temperature. Increasing the solution ionic strength from 100 to 400 mM by adding NaCl increased power output from 720 to 1330 mW/m2. Power generation was also increased from 720 to 1210 mW/m2 by decreasing the distance between the anode and cathode from 4to 2 cm. The power increases due to ionic strength and electrode spacing resulted from a decrease in the internal resistance. Power output was also increased by 68% by replacing the cathode (purchased from a manufacturer) with our own carbon cloth cathode containing the same Pt loading. The performance of conventional anaerobic treatment processes, such as anaerobic digestion, are adversely affected by temperatures below 30 degrees C. However, decreasing the temperature from 32 to 20 degrees C reduced power output by only 9%, primarily as a result of the reduction of the cathode potential. Coulombic efficiencies and overall energy recovery varied as a function of operating conditions, but were a maximum of 61.4 and 15.1% (operating conditions of 32 degrees C, carbon paper cathode, and the solution amended with 300 mM NaCl). These results, which demonstrate that power densities can be increased to over 1 W/m2 by changing the operating conditions or electrode spacing, should lead to further improvements in power generation and energy recovery in single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs.  相似文献
7.
福建烟区土壤特性及其与烟叶品质的关系   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
对福建烟区1994年48个代表性土壤及相应的烟叶样品的分析化验结果表明:福建烟区土壤养分的平均含量为:有机质25.5g/kg,全氮1.529/kg,速效氮143.50mg/kg,全磷0.35g/kg,速效磷23.03mg/kg,全钾18.61g/kg,缓效钾181.06mg/kg,速效钾64.99mg/kg,交换性镁0.34mg/kg,有效硼0.22mg/kg,含氯量36.67mg/kg。种烟土壤主要为黄泥田和灰泥田。经相关分析,影响福建烟叶质量的主要土壤因素为pH值偏低,有机质和氮素含量偏高,有效钾严重不足,镁、硼等中微量元素普遍较缺乏。生产优质烟叶必需注意选择适宜的土壤类型,调节土壤pH,控制氮肥的使用时期,增加钾肥的施用量并改进施用方法,注意补充镁硼等中微量元素。  相似文献
8.
Electrochemically assisted microbial production of hydrogen from acetate   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
Hydrogen production via bacterial fermentation is currently limited to a maximum of 4 moles of hydrogen per mole of glucose, and under these conditions results in a fermentation end product (acetate; 2 mol/mol glucose) that bacteria are unable to further convert to hydrogen. It is shown here that this biochemical barrier can be circumvented by generating hydrogen gas from acetate using a completely anaerobic microbial fuel cell (MFC). By augmenting the electrochemical potential achieved by bacteria in this MFC with an additional voltage of 250 mV or more, it was possible to produce hydrogen at the cathode directly from the oxidized organic matter. More than 90% of the protons and electrons produced by the bacteria from the oxidation of acetate were recovered as hydrogen gas, with an overall Coulombic efficiency (total recovery of electrons from acetate) of 60-78%. This is equivalent to an overall yield of 2.9 mol H2/mol acetate (assuming 78% Coulombic efficiency and 92% recovery of electrons as hydrogen). This bio-electrochemically assisted microbial system, if combined with hydrogen fermentation that produces 2-3 mol H2/mol glucose, has the potential to produce ca. 8-9 mol H2/mol glucose at an energy cost equivalent to 1.2 mol H2/mol glucose. Production of hydrogen by this anaerobic MFC process is not limited to carbohydrates, as in a fermentation process, as any biodegradable dissolved organic matter can theoretically be used in this process to generate hydrogen from the complete oxidation of organic matter.  相似文献
9.
辐照处理对泠却肉脂肪氧化影响的研究   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:13  
研究了辐照剂量、贮藏时间和抗氧化剂对冷却肉脂肪氧化的影响。结果表明:辐照处理会加速冷却肉脂肪氧化,辐照剂量越高,脂肪氧化程度越大;在贮藏前期,随着贮藏时间的延长,辐照冷却肉脂肪氧化速度明显加快;在贮藏后期,冷却肉脂肪氧化的程度不能单纯根据过氧化值来判断;抗氧化剂茶多酚可以明显抑制辐照处理和贮藏时间对冷却肉脂肪氧化的影响。  相似文献
10.
速冻玉米穗加工工艺   总被引:11,自引:1,他引:10  
选择籽粒含水量为70 %~73 %的甜玉米 ,经前处理 ,在90~98℃条件下热烫7~12min ,冷却至5℃以下 ,经流化床式速冻隧道 ,在空气温度为 -26~ -30℃的条件下冻结8~15min ,经包装、检验即可得到速冻玉米穗。  相似文献
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