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1.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are typically designed as a two-chamber system with the bacteria in the anode chamber separated from the cathode chamber by a polymeric proton exchange membrane (PEM). Most MFCs use aqueous cathodes where water is bubbled with air to provide dissolved oxygen to electrode. To increase energy output and reduce the cost of MFCs, we examined power generation in an air-cathode MFC containing carbon electrodes in the presence and absence of a polymeric proton exchange membrane (PEM). Bacteria present in domestic wastewater were used as the biocatalyst, and glucose and wastewater were tested as substrates. Power density was found to be much greater than typically reported for aqueous-cathode MFCs, reaching a maximum of 262 +/- 10 mW/m2 (6.6 +/- 0.3 mW/L; liquid volume) using glucose. Removing the PEM increased the maximum power density to 494 +/- 21 mW/m2 (12.5 +/- 0.5 mW/L). Coulombic efficiency was 40-55% with the PEM and 9-12% with the PEM removed, indicating substantial oxygen diffusion into the anode chamber in the absence of the PEM. Power output increased with glucose concentration according to saturation-type kinetics, with a half saturation constant of 79 mg/L with the PEM-MFC and 103 mg/L in the MFC without a PEM (1000 omega resistor). Similar results on the effect of the PEM on power density were found using wastewater, where 28 +/- 3 mW/m2 (0.7 +/- 0.1 mW/L) (28% Coulombic efficiency) was produced with the PEM, and 146 +/- 8 mW/m2 (3.7 +/- 0.2 mW/L) (20% Coulombic efficiency) was produced when the PEM was removed. The increase in power output when a PEM was removed was attributed to a higher cathode potential as shown by an increase in the open circuit potential. An analysis based on available anode surface area and maximum bacterial growth rates suggests that mediatorless MFCs may have an upper order-of-magnitude limit in power density of 10(3) mW/m2. A cost-effective approach to achieving power densities in this range will likely require systems that do not contain a polymeric PEM in the MFC and systems based on direct oxygen transfer to a carbon cathode.  相似文献
2.
Bioactive milk peptides: a prospectus   总被引:47,自引:0,他引:47  
Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Hydrolytic reactions, such as those catalyzed by digestive enzymes, result in their release. These peptides directly influence numerous biological processes evoking behavioral, gastrointestinal, hormonal, immunological, neurological, and nutritional responses. The specific bioreactions associated with each physiological class have been well characterized. Herein, we review the scientific literature and attempt to stimulate consideration of the continued use of bioactive peptides and their expanded development as a commercial product. Several applications have already evolved. For example, phosphopeptides derived from casein fractions are currently used as both dietary and pharmaceutical supplements. Potentially, the addition of bioactive peptides to food products could improve consumer safety as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Lastly, bioactive peptides may function as health care products, providing therapeutic value for either treatment of infection or prevention of disease.  相似文献
3.
Microbial fuel cells: methodology and technology   总被引:46,自引:0,他引:46  
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. The construction and analysis of MFCs requires knowledge of different scientific and engineering fields, ranging from microbiology and electrochemistry to materials and environmental engineering. Describing MFC systems therefore involves an understanding of these different scientific and engineering principles. In this paper, we provide a review of the different materials and methods used to construct MFCs, techniques used to analyze system performance, and recommendations on what information to include in MFC studies and the most useful ways to present results.  相似文献
4.
Although microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate much lower power densities than hydrogen fuel cells, the characteristics of the cathode can also substantially affect electricity generation. Cathodes used for MFCs are often either Pt-coated carbon electrodes immersed in water that use dissolved oxygen as the electron acceptor or they are plain carbon electrodes in a ferricyanide solution. The characteristics and performance of these two cathodes were compared using a two-chambered MFC. Power generation using the Pt-carbon cathode and dissolved oxygen (saturated) reached a maximum of 0.097 mW within 120 h after inoculation (wastewater sludge and 20 mM acetate) when the cathode was equal size to the anode (2.5 x 4.5 cm). Once stable power was generated after replacing the MFC with fresh medium (no sludge), the Coulombic efficiency ranged from 63 to 78%. Power was proportional to the dissolved oxygen concentration in a manner consistent with Monod-type kinetics, with a half saturation constant of K(DO) = 1.74 mg of O2/L. Power increased by 24% when the cathode surface areas were increased from 22.5 to 67.5 cm2 and decreased by 56% when the cathode surface area was reduced to 5.8 cm2. Power was also substantially reduced (by 78% to 0.02 mW) if Pt was not used on the cathode. By using ferricyanide instead of dissolved oxygen, the maximum power increased by 50-80% versus that obtained with dissolved oxygen. This result was primarily due to increased mass transfer efficiencies and the larger cathode potential (332 mV) of ferricyanide than that obtained with dissolved oxygen (268 mV). A cathode potential of 804 mV (NHE basis) is theoretically possible using dissolved oxygen, indicating that further improvements in cathode performance with oxygen as the electron acceptor are possible that could lead to increased power densities in this type of MFC.  相似文献
5.
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts organic matter to electricity using microorganisms as the biocatalyst. Most MFCs contain two electrodes separated into one or two chambers that are operated as a completely mixed reactor. In this study, a flat plate MFC (FPMFC) was designed to operate as a plug flow reactor (no mixing) using a combined electrode/proton exchange membrane (PEM) system. The reactor consisted of a single channel formed between two nonconductive plates that were separated into two halves by the electrode/PEM assembly. Each electrode was placed on an opposite side of the PEM, with the anode facing the chamber containing the liquid phase and the cathode facing a chamber containing only air. Electricity generation using the FPMFC was examined by continuously feeding a solution containing wastewater, or a specific substrate, into the anode chamber. The system was initially acclimated for 1 month using domestic wastewater orwastewater enriched with a specific substrate such as acetate. Average power density using only domestic wastewater was 72+/-1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0.39 mL/min [42% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, 1.1 h HRT (hydraulic retention time)]. At a longer HRT = 4.0 h, there was 79% COD removal and an average power density of 43+/-1 mW/m2. Power output was found to be a function of wastewater strength according to a Monod-type relationship, with a half-saturation constant of Ks = 461 or 719 mg COD/L. Power generation was sustained at high rates with several organic substrates (all at approximately 1000 mg COD/L), including glucose (212+/-2 mW/ m2), acetate (286+/-3 mW/m2), butyrate (220+/-1 mW/ m2), dextran (150+/-1 mW/m2), and starch (242+/-3 mW/ m2). These results demonstrate the versatility of power generation in a MFC with a variety of organic substrates and show that power can be generated at a high rate in a continuous flow reactor system.  相似文献
6.
Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.  相似文献
7.
Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in water and soil. However, interpreting the > 10,000 wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity data points represented in EEMs has posed a significant challenge. Fluorescence regional integration, a quantitative technique that integrates the volume beneath an EEM, was developed to analyze EEMs. EEMs were delineated into five excitation-emission regions based on fluorescence of model compounds, DOM fractions, and marine waters or freshwaters. Volumetric integration under the EEM within each region, normalized to the projected excitation-emission area within that region and dissolved organic carbon concentration, resulted in a normalized region-specific EEM volume (phi(i,n)). Solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra, and EEMs were obtained for standard Suwannee River fulvic acid and 15 hydrophobic or hydrophilic acid, neutral, and base DOM fractions plus nonfractionated DOM from wastewater effluents and rivers in the southwestern United States. DOM fractions fluoresced in one or more EEM regions. The highest cumulative EEM volume (phi(T,n) = sigma phi(i,n)) was observed for hydrophobic neutral DOM fractions, followed by lower phi(T,n) values for hydrophobic acid, base, and hydrophilic acid DOM fractions, respectively. An extracted wastewater biomass DOM sample contained aromatic protein- and humic-like material and was characteristic of bacterial-soluble microbial products. Aromatic carbon and the presence of specific aromatic compounds (as indicated by solid-state 13C NMR and FTIR data) resulted in EEMs that aided in differentiating wastewater effluent DOM from drinking water DOM.  相似文献
8.
烟碱向降烟碱转化对烟叶麦斯明和TSNA含量的影响   总被引:30,自引:0,他引:30  
以白肋烟TN90为材料,研究了非转化株、低转化株及高转化株烟叶样品的烟碱转化程度及降烟碱含量与烟叶麦斯明和烟草特有亚硝胺(TSNA)含量的关系。结果表明,随着烟株烟碱转化能力的提高和烟叶降烟碱含量的增加,叶片和主脉的麦斯明含量呈线性增加。当烟碱转化率超过20%时,麦斯明含量超过了假木贼碱的含量。在4种主要的TSNA中,具有不同烟碱转化能力的样品间4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶基)-1-丁酮(NNK)、N-亚硝基新烟草碱(NAT)和N-亚硝基假木贼碱(NAB)含量没有显著差异,N-亚硝基降烟碱(NNN)含量则随着烟碱转化能力的提高和降烟碱含量的增加而大幅度升高,尤其在主脉中表现更为明显。NNN占总TSNA的比例随烟碱转化程度的提高而增加,在高转化烟株中可高达90%,其它3种TSNA占总TSNA的比例相应降低。叶片中NAT含量和比例一般高于NNK,而在主脉中NNK含量高于NAT。  相似文献
9.
Antioxidant activities of buckwheat extracts   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
Ting Sun  Chi-Tang Ho   《Food chemistry》2005,90(4):743-749
The antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) extracts were evaluated and compared with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using a β-carotene bleaching assay, a 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the Rancimat method. Buckwheat was extracted with solvents of different polarities. The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity coefficient (AAC) of 627 ± 40.0 at 200 mg/l by the β-carotene bleaching method and longest induction time of 7.0 ± 0.2 h by the Rancimat method. The acetone extract showed the highest total phenolics of 3.4 ± 0.1 g catechin equivalents/100 g and the highest scavenging activity of 78.6 ± 6.2% at 0.1 mg/ml by the DPPH method. The properties of the extracting solvents significantly affected the yield, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of buckwheat extract.  相似文献
10.
Hydrogen can be recovered by fermentation of organic material rich in carbohydrates, but much of the organic matter remains in the form of acetate and butyrate. An alternative to methane production from this organic matter is the direct generation of electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Electricity generation using a single-chambered MFC was examined using acetate or butyrate. Power generated with acetate (800 mg/L) (506 mW/m2 or 12.7 mW/ L) was up to 66% higher than that fed with butyrate (1000 mg/L) (305 mW/m2 or 7.6 mW/L), demonstrating that acetate is a preferred aqueous substrate for electricity generation in MFCs. Power output as a function of substrate concentration was well described by saturation kinetics, although maximum power densities varied with the circuit load. Maximum power densities and half-saturation constants were Pmax = 661 mW/m2 and Ks = 141 mg/L for acetate (218 ohms) and Pmax = 349 mW/m2 and Ks = 93 mg/L for butyrate (1000 ohms). Similar open circuit potentials were obtained in using acetate (798 mV) or butyrate (795 mV). Current densities measured for stable power outputwere higher for acetate (2.2 A/m2) than those measured in MFCs using butyrate (0.77 A/m2). Cyclic voltammograms suggested that the main mechanism of power production in these batch tests was by direct transfer of electrons to the electrode by bacteria growing on the electrode and not by bacteria-produced mediators. Coulombic efficiencies and overall energy recovery were 10-31 and 3-7% for acetate and 8-15 and 2-5% for butyrate, indicating substantial electron and energy losses to processes other than electricity generation. These results demonstrate that electricity generation is possible from soluble fermentation end products such as acetate and butyrate, but energy recoveries should be increased to improve the overall process performance.  相似文献
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