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1.
壳聚糖对芒果炭疽病菌、蒂腐病菌的拮抗作用   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
以芒果炭疽病菌、蒂腐病菌为实验菌株,研究了不同pH、酸溶剂的种类对壳聚糖抗菌活性及其抗菌稳定性的影响。结果表明:壳聚糖的抑菌率随着壳聚糖浓度的提高而提高;在pH4.8和pH6.0的环境中,壳聚糖的抗菌能力较强;壳聚糖的乳酸溶液对芒果蒂腐病菌有很强的抑制力;壳聚糖连续刺激诱导40代后,芒果炭疽病菌、蒂腐病菌的EC50值均有所提高,其中以芒果球二孢霉蒂腐病菌和芒果褐色蒂腐病菌变化最显著,说明壳聚糖对其抗菌稳定性最差。  相似文献
2.
香蕉炭疽菌拮抗生防菌株的筛选及鉴定   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
从香蕉组织中分离筛选到18株在平板上对香蕉炭疽菌孢子有明显抑菌活性的菌株,将这18株菌分别与香蕉炭疽菌共同接种到香蕉果指上进行活体防效复筛,发现与清水对照组相比较,AcT-02、AcT-07、AcT-09、AcT-11、AcT-13共5株细菌均表现出显著的防治效果,防效分别为49.77%±4.20%、47.87%±8.97%、63.82%±3.16%、68.15%±2.48%和73.85%±2.39%,香蕉病情指数显著降低;将该5株菌进行香蕉自然发病的防效试验,发现只有AcT-13菌株具有显著防治效果,其病情指数为18.67%,比对照降低了13%,将AcT-13进行形态学观察、生理生化特性测定以及分子学序列分析,初步将AcT-13菌株鉴定为解淀粉芽孢杆菌Bacillus amyloliquefaciens。  相似文献
3.
烟台地区酿酒葡萄品种对炭疽病的抗性研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
以烟台地区的5个酿酒葡萄品种为试材,调查了田间炭疽病的发病情况,并对各品种进行了室内果实离体抗病性鉴定。结果发现,5个葡萄品种在田间自然发病条件下炭疽病发病情况不同,抗性存在明显差异,与室内抗病性鉴定结果基本一致。其中蛇龙珠和梅鹿辄抗性强,赤霞珠次之,西拉和霞多丽最易感病。  相似文献
4.
Healthy fruits of Capsicum annuum L. cv. Chelsea (yellow bell pepper) and one infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were analysed for polyphenols via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Among seven polyphenols characterized, four components in the C. annuum fruits were identified for the first time. To investigate the characteristics of the polyphenols as defence materials, the content change of the fruit polyphenols inoculated with C. gloeosporioides was monitored by HPLC. It was observed for the first time that de novo induced N-caffeoyl putrescine (1) and caffeoyl O-hexoside (2) appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the C. annuum fruits against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed feruloyl O-glucoside (3), kaempferol O-pentosyldihexoside (4) and dihydroxyflavone O-hexoside (7) as a phytoanticipin in the diseased C. annuum fruits.  相似文献
5.
M.S. Hernández  J. Barrera 《LWT》2009,42(4):879-884
Arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh) fruits at breaker stage of maturity were stored at 7, 10, 12, or 20 °C and 85-90% RH for 2 weeks, with or without an additional simulated shelf-life period (3 days at 20 °C and 70% RH). Some half-yellow (turning) arazá fruit were also stored at 7 or 12 °C. Respiration rate, ethylene production, quality traits and physiological disorders and decay were monitored. Arazá fruit of both stages of maturity showed a climacteric pattern of ripening, with the maximum levels of respiration being reached after 5 days at 20 °C for breaker fruit, while half-yellow fruit ripened totally after one day. Weight loss was the most limiting quality trait for arazá fruit. Chilling injury symptoms included skin scald (only at 7 °C), uneven ripening (at 7 or 10 °C, including uneven softening during storage, particularly in breaker fruit), and slight acidification at 7 °C. Decay in the post-storage shelf-life periods (mainly Gloesporium sp.) was particularly high after storage at 7 °C in breaker fruit. The storage of breaker arazá fruit at 12 °C is recommended because this prevents chilling injury and flesh acidification, and allows normal fruit ripening during a post-storage shelf-life at 20 °C, as revealed by the lower organic acids (mainly malic) content and increased sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose) content.  相似文献
6.
为探讨植物精油对枇杷采后炭疽菌抑制的效果及其机理,分别用丁香酚、柠檬醛和香芹酚对尖孢炭疽菌进行体外处理,筛选出丁香酚为最优抑制剂并研究了其对尖孢炭疽菌外渗率、核酸泄漏及蛋白质的影响。以枇杷为供试材料,接种尖孢炭疽菌后分别用0.5、1.0、2.5、5.0μL/L的丁香酚熏蒸处理,统计病害发生率及病斑直径,并研究了丁香酚对枇杷品质的影响。结果表明:在体外实验中,3种供试精油对尖孢炭疽菌均有明显的抑制作用,48μL/L丁香酚可以完全抑制尖孢炭疽菌的生长,且在一定程度上造成了菌内细胞内容物的渗出。在丁香酚对枇杷果实采后炭疽病抑制效果实验中发现,贮藏6 d时,1μL/L丁香酚处理组病斑直径及病害发生率显著低于对照组,病斑直径仅为6.41 mm,病害发生率为66.67%。丁香酚对枇杷品质影响方面,其能够显著抑制采后枇杷质量损失率的上升及VC含量下降(P0.05),但对枇杷的颜色、硬度、可溶性固形物及可滴定酸等品质指标影响不显著(P0.05)。  相似文献
7.
Trichoderma harzianum-TrH40 isolated from soil samples from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) orchards had antagonistic effects with combination of CaCl2 salts on growth, activity, and infection of rambutan fruits by anthracnose (Colleotrichum gloeosporioides). Lower growth rate of spore germination, radial mycelial growth, and infectivity of anthracnose pathogen was observed at higher molar concentration of CaCl2 by in vitro studies. Germination rate was 0.5% when 1M CaCl2 was combined with T. harzianum-TrH40 spore suspension. The disease incidence and severity of anthracnose were least on wounded fruits that had been dipped in a solution containing of 1,100 mg of CaCl2 per liter and T. harzianum-TrH40, which contained 106 spores/ml. Furthermore, disease incidence and severity with combined treatments were correlated significantly and effectively reduced infection in vivo in rambutan fruits.  相似文献
8.
目的 为提高黄瓜采后炭疽病病原菌葫芦科刺盘孢Colletotrichum orbiculare的识别效率, 探究该病原菌的侵染对黄瓜采后贮藏品质的影响。方法 本文针对黄瓜炭疽病病原葫芦科刺盘孢Colletotrichum orbiculare的ITS序列设计特异性引物, 以黄瓜自然发病状态下分离的疑似黄瓜炭疽病病原菌DNA为模板, 利用PCR反应进行基因克隆, 并将所得的目的片段进行测序后, 确定为黄瓜炭疽病病原菌葫芦科刺盘孢Colletotrichum orbiculare。将病原菌反接于黄瓜, 取发病腐烂组织, 测定硬度、可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量指标。结果 结果表明, 黄瓜炭疽病病原会造成黄瓜硬度降低, 可滴定酸含量升高, 可溶性固形物含量降低, 严重影响黄瓜的采后贮藏品质。结论 本文为黄瓜采后炭疽病病原菌的分子识别提供参考方法, 并未针对黄瓜采后炭疽病病原菌Colletotrichum orbiculare的控制措施提供研究基础。  相似文献
9.
10.
Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit.  相似文献
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