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1.
微波杀菌研究进展及其在食品工业中的应用现状   总被引:21,自引:1,他引:20  
综述了微波杀菌研究进展及其在食品工业中的应用现状。微波加热对微生物和酶的热力效应,目前已深入到对杀菌对象不同种类微生物的致死和酶的钝化作用机理研究,而非热力效应还难以量化。微波杀菌还必需对内容物以及包装材料进行研究。微波杀菌技术在食品工业中的应用受到技术、经济和商业因素制约,杀菌过程缺乏有效的在线温度测定和控制的手段,目前还难以建立一套可靠的程序和依据来评估微波杀菌的效果和安全性。  相似文献
2.
高压脉冲电场杀菌技术研究进展   总被引:16,自引:3,他引:13  
高压脉冲电场用于食品杀菌具有时间短、能耗低,能有效保存食品营养成分和天然色、香、味特征,具有广阔的工业化应用前景,本文从高压脉冲电场处理系统设计、灭菌机理、处理效果、影响因素、能量消耗与经济性等方面对其研究现状和工业化应用前景做了探讨。  相似文献
3.
The general goal of this research was to provide fluid milk processors with data to enable them to estimate the economic benefits they might derive from longer fluid milk shelf-life or new marketing opportunities due to a reduction in raw milk SCC. The study objectives were: 1) to measure the time in days for pasteurized homogenized 2% milk to achieve a level of lipolysis and proteolysis caused by native milk enzymes present in milks of different somatic cell count (SCC) at 0.5 and 6 degrees C that would be sufficient to produce an off-flavor, 2) to determine whether milk fat content (i.e., 1, 2, and 3.25%) influences the level of proteolysis or lipolysis caused by native milk enzymes at 6 degrees C, and 3) to determine the time in days for milks containing 2% fat with different SCC to undergo sufficient lipolysis or proteolysis to produce an off-flavor due to the combination of the action of native milk enzymes and microbial growth at 0.5 and 6 degrees C. In experiment 1, pasteurized, homogenized milks, containing 2% fat were prepared from raw milk containing four different SCC levels from < 100,000 to > 1,000,000 cells/ml. Each of the four milks was stored at 0.5 and 6 degrees C for 61 d. In experiment 2, pasteurized, homogenized milks containing 1, 2, and 3.25% fat were prepared starting from two raw milks containing two different SCC levels, one < 100,000 and the other > 1,000,000 cells/ml. In experiment 3, pasteurized, homogenized 2% fat milks were prepared starting from raw milks containing two different SCC levels, one < 100,000 and the other > 1,000,000 cells/ml. For experiments 1 and 2, all milks were preserved with potassium dichromate to prevent microbial growth but to allow the activity of native milk proteases and lipases during storage. For experiment 3, one set of milk was preserved with potassium dichromate to prevent microbial growth but to allow the activity of native milk proteases and lipases, and a second set of milk was unpreserved during storage at 0.5 and 6 degrees C for 29 d. Based on previous work, an off-flavor due to proteolysis was detected by 50% of panelists when the decrease in casein as a percentage of true protein (CN/TP) was > 4.76%. Our data indicated (assuming 50% of consumers would detect an off-flavor when CN/TP decreases 5%) that pasteurized milk containing 2% fat would develop an off-flavor at a time long after 61 and at 54 d for the low SCC milk, and at about 54 and 19 d for the high SCC milk, at 0.5 and 6 degrees C, respectively. Previous research reported that 34% of panelists could detect an off-flavor in milk containing 2% fat due to lipolysis at a (free fatty acid) FFA concentration of 0.25 meq/kg of milk. Based on these results, it was estimated in the present study that 34% of panelists would detect an off-flavor in a 2% fat pasteurized milk with low SCC at a time long after 61 and just after 61 d at 0.5 and 6 degrees C, respectively, while for milk with high SCC, an off-flavor would be detected by 34% of panelists at slightly longer than 61 and 35 d at 0.5 and 6 degrees C, respectively. The combination of low SCC milk and low storage temperature when coupled with processing technology to produce very low initial bacteria count in fluid milk could produce fluid milk that will maintain flavor quality for more than 61 d of storage at temperatures < 6 degrees C.  相似文献
4.
瞬时高压作用对E.coli存活率的影响   总被引:10,自引:4,他引:6  
本文研究了超高压均质作用Microfiuidization处理后的大肠杆菌存活率与杀菌压力、次数之间的关系,结果表明:随着压力、次数的增加,微生物存活率减小;而添加在某些食品(介质)的大肠杆菌比添加在蒸馏水的大肠杆菌存活机会更大一些。此外,本文首次提出“瞬时高压作用”这一概念,为进一步将超高压均质作用作为一门新的物理杀菌技术的研究奠定理论基础。  相似文献
5.
巴氏牛奶中蜡样芽孢杆菌的风险评估   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
为了了解巴氏牛奶中蜡样芽孢杆菌的风险状况,调查研究了北京地区乳品企业巴氏牛奶的运输和销售的总体情况以及北京地区居民牛奶消费的相关情况,结合预测微生物学的方法建立了巴氏牛奶中蜡样芽孢杆菌在流通领域的暴露评估模型。从整个评估过程来看,流通领域的温度和时间是影响巴氏奶安全性的主要因素。  相似文献
6.
ABSTRACT: Dielectric properties of mashed potatoes relevant to microwave and radio-frequency (RF) pasteurization and sterilization processes were measured over 1 to 1800 MHz and 20 °C to 120 °C. Effects of moisture content (81.6% to 87.8%, wb) and salt content (0.8% to 2.8%, wb) were investigated. Dielectric loss factors and constants decreased with frequency. Dielectric loss factors increased with temperature and salt content, but dielectric constants were not significantly affected. Ionic conductivity played a dominant role at low frequencies. Power penetration depth increased with moisture content and decreased with temperature, frequency, and salt content. Regression equations were developed to relate the dielectric properties to temperature, moisture, and salt contents.  相似文献
7.
酶处理对橙汁混浊稳定性及微观结构的影响研究   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
李琳  赵谋明  吴永娴 《食品科学》2004,25(11):58-63
橙汁冈其均匀稳定混浊态的丧失而失去诱人外观。本文以橙汁为原料,采用果胶酶及蛋白酶处理,比较其混浊态稳定性及微观结构的变化。结果表明:果胶酶可加速橙汁的澄清,蛋白酶处理可减缓橙汁混浊态的丧失。经过酶处理后橙汁溷浊的微观结构发生了变化,用蛋白酶处理后的橙汁混浊体积较小,分布较均匀,呈筛状的网状结构;而用果胶酶处理后的橙汁形成了体积稍大的无定形物质且混浊成分之问有游离脂肪滴。脯氨酸是橙汁中含量最高的氨基酸,其可能与橙汁混浊中蛋白质的不溶有关。  相似文献
8.
常规电压自发脉冲放电杀菌机理初探   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
本文研究常规电压自发脉冲放电杀菌时物料性质的变化, 并在此基础上对脉冲放电杀菌机理进行分析。  相似文献
9.
延长鲜豆浆(豆乳)保质期的研究   总被引:6,自引:1,他引:5  
豆浆(豆乳)保鲜一直是大豆业界的技术难题。为了保证豆浆(豆乳)良好的风味和常温下贮存的安全性,文中探讨了几种不同性能的食品防腐剂和巴氏杀菌工艺对延长豆浆(豆乳)保质期的可能性。试验证明,有少数防腐剂对豆浆(豆乳)具有较好的抑菌作用,可以适当延长产品的保质期,其中保鲜剂E可使巴氏杀菌的鲜豆浆(豆乳)产品在≤25℃条件下,保质期达到3d,37℃下保存1d。  相似文献
10.
糖水荔枝罐头生产中应用微波杀菌技术的研究   总被引:6,自引:1,他引:5  
采用微波杀菌技术生产糖水荔枝罐头,确定了应用微波杀菌后无菌封罐技术的生产新工艺。研究糖水荔枝罐头在隧道式微波能杀菌机中的罐距、位移速度、灌注、补充糖液的温度和操作方法等因素,确定新工艺的参数。  相似文献
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