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1.
The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether previous findings of similar quantitative trait loci (QTL) positions for correlated yield traits are due to a pleiotropic QTL. We applied a multitrait variance component based QTL mapping method to a dataset involving five granddaughter families from the German Holstein dairy cattle population. The marker map contained 16 microsatellite markers, distributed across chromosome BTA6. A chromosomewise significance threshold was used, because BTA6 is known to harbor QTL for several milk traits. To evaluate the results from the multivariate, across-family analysis, we also conducted single-family analyses using the least squares method of QTL estimation. The results provided two significant QTL findings at 49 and 64 cM for milk yield in different families and putative QTL at 68 cM for fat yield and at 71 cM for protein yield in another family. The results for fat and protein yield were confirmed by a univariate, across-family variance components analysis. The multivariate analysis of three bivariate trait combinations resulted in a significant pleiotropic QTL finding at 68 cM for fat yield and protein yield, bracketed by markers TGLA37 and FBN13. The estimates of variance contribution due to this QTL were 23% and 25%, respectively.  相似文献
2.
Production and pedigree data of Iranian Holsteins were collected from 1991 to the end of 2001 on 45 herds in Isfahan province. Data on culled cows (birth and culling dates) were used to estimate the effect of age at first calving on total lifetime and productive life; and the effect of age at first calving on first-lactation yields was estimated from corrected (2x 305 d) first-lactation records of 12,082 dairy heifers that calved between 1995 and 2001. The estimate of heritability of age at first calving obtained in this study was 0.086. This low heritability indicates the importance of using available information on relatives for selection on this trait. Age at first calving significantly affected all the traits investigated, including: milk yield, fat yield, fat percentage, lifetime, and productive life. Results indicated a positive effect of reducing age at first calving on milk yield and productive life, although reducing age at first calving to 21 mo of age had a negative effect on yields of milk and milk fat. Lifetime did not show a similar trend with age at first calving. However, a slight positive phenotypic correlation (0.052) was detected between age at first calving and lifetime. We conclude that due to negative effects of age at first calving on productive life and because of optimum age at first calving for milk yield was 24 mo in this study, the reduction of age at first calving to 24 mo of age could be an effective management practice.  相似文献
3.
芥菜型油菜多室角果的解剖特征及遗传分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
采用石蜡切片、杂交和回交技术研究了芥菜型油菜多室材料J163角果的形态特征、单株产量性状构成和遗传控制机制。结果表明,J163的角果由4心皮发育而来,4个果瓣包围种子,2个假隔膜平行,将角果分隔成3个腔室;假隔膜发育稳定,无假隔膜发育障碍或中途退化而形成多室与两室角果嵌合现象;尽管多室材料的千粒重和单株有效角果数均小于两室材料,但多室材料每角粒数和单株产量显著提高,说明多室性状(每角粒数多)有利于提高油菜产量;J163多室性状受隐性核基因控制,无细胞质效应,J163和两室材料J248间在多室位点上存在2对基因差异,但J163的多室性状基因是否为2对独立隐性基因还需进一步研究。上述结果也说明J163是新型芥菜型油菜多室材料。  相似文献
4.
The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between reproductive traits in heifers and cows and yield traits for Holsteins in Japan. Insemination and lactation records for cows calved between 1990 and 2003 in Hokkaido region were obtained. Age at first service, age at conception, and conception rate for first service were calculated for heifers. Days from calving to first service, days open, and conception rate for first service were calculated for first- and second-parity cows. The yield traits used were 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields. A threshold animal model was applied for the conception rate for first service, and a linear animal model was applied for the other traits. Single-trait and 2-trait genetic analyses were performed by the Bayesian method using Gibbs sampling. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.027 to 0.051 for conception rate for first service, and from 0.074 to 0.128 for the other reproductive traits. If the relationships of other traits were not considered, days from calving to first service was favorable to genetic selection for reproductive traits because of relatively high heritability and because it can be available earlier than the days open. Genetic correlations among reproductive traits were high, especially in cows. The genetic correlations between reproductive traits for heifers and those for cows were lower than the genetic correlations between reproductive traits for first parity and those of second parity, suggesting that reproductive traits for heifers should be evaluated separately from reproductive traits for cows. Genetic correlations between yield and reproductive traits in cows were antagonistic. In contrast, genetic correlations between reproductive traits for heifers and yield traits were slightly desirable. Depending on the reporting rate of insemination records for heifers and the results of investigations for relationships with productive maturity, selection by reproductive traits for heifers will enable the improvement of reproductive performance without a loss in genetic progress for yield traits.  相似文献
5.
采用MINQUE(1)统计方法及AD模型,对11个甘蓝型油菜优良亲本和F1的12个主要产量性状进行遗传分析。结果表明:12个产量性状存在着极显著的加性效应和显性效应,且都存在与环境的互作;千粒重的广义遗传率和狭义遗传率均最高。产量性状的平均优势表现较好,其中株高、有效分枝部位、一次有效角果数、角果粒数和理论产量表现好。在超亲优势方面,除株高和有效分枝部位为正向优势外,其它产量性状都表现为负向优势。亲本产量性状的遗传效应差异较大,选用合适亲本可明显改善杂种后代的产量性状。  相似文献
6.
为评价油棕在干热河谷地区的生长表现,于2011年从海南引进‘热油2号’‘热油4号’‘热油6号’和‘热油8号’4个油棕品种在云南保山干热河谷区试种,并按照农业农村部油棕品种区域适应性试种观测相关技术规范开展抚管和观测。经过多年引种观察,4个油棕品种在云南保山干热河谷区均能正常生长发育,表现出较强的适应性,其中‘热油2号’株高、茎高、年新增叶片数、冠幅生长量最大,‘热油4号’果穗性状、果实性状表现最优,可作为生产上小规模试验性试种材料推广种植。  相似文献
7.
8.
Emphasis by dairy producers on various yield and fitness traits when culling cows was documented for US Holstein calvings since 1982. Least squares differences between cows retained for additional parities and those culled were estimated for milk, fat, and protein yields; somatic cell score (SCS); days open (DO); dystocia score (DS), final score (FS), and 14 type traits. Compared with cows culled during first lactation, superiority for first-parity milk yield was 569 to 1,175 kg for cows with 2 lactations, 642 to 1,283 kg for cows with ≥2 lactations, 710 to 1,350 kg for cows with 3 lactations, and 663 to 1,331 kg for cows with ≥4 lactations. Cows retained for ≥2 lactations had first-parity SCS that were 0.34 to 0.62 lower (more favorable) than those of cows culled during first lactation; first-parity SCS for cows retained for 3 or ≥4 lactations were even more favorable than those of cows with 1 or 2 lactations. The negative genetic relationship between yield and fertility contributed to increased DO as selection for higher milk yield persisted across time despite considerable preference for early conception when culling cows. In 1982, cows retained in the herd for 2, 3, and ≥4 lactations conceived earlier during first lactation (19, 17, and 23 fewer DO, respectively) than those culled during first lactation; those differences had increased to 34, 41, and 52 fewer DO by 2000. Although DS has a negative relationship with survival, first-parity DS were only slightly lower (by 0.10 to 0.14) for survivors than for cows culled during first lactation. Cows retained for ≥2 lactations had greater first-parity FS by 1.4 to 1.9 points than those culled during first lactation. On a standardized basis, the most intense selection during first lactation was for milk and protein yields with less for fat (74 to 86% of that for milk), DO (18 to 74%), FS (22 to 38%), SCS (19 to 37%), and DS (7 to 15%). Producers continued to emphasize the same traits when culling during second and third lactations. Trait priority by producers during culling could aid in setting trait emphasis when selecting bulls for progeny test and could also be useful in developing software for index-based culling guides.  相似文献
9.
Variance ratios were estimated for random within-herd effects of age at test day and lactation stage, on test-day yield and somatic cell score to determine whether including these effects would improve the accuracy of estimation. Test-day data starting with 1990 calvings for the entire US Jersey population and Holsteins from California, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Texas were analyzed. Test-day yields were adjusted for across-herd effects using solutions from a regional analysis. Estimates of the relative variance (fraction of total variance) due to within-herd age effects were small, indicating that regional adjustments for age were adequate. The relative variances for within-herd lactation stage were large enough to indicate that accuracy of genetic evaluations could be improved by including herd stage effects in the model for milk, fat, and protein, but not for somatic cell score. Because the within-herd lactation stage effect is assumed to be random, the effect is regressed toward the regional effects for small herds, but in large herds, lactation curves become herd specific. Model comparisons demonstrated the greater explanatory power of the model with a within-herd-stage effect as prediction error standard deviations were greater for the model without this effect. The benefit of the within-herd-stage effects was confirmed in a random regression model by comparing variance components from models with and without random within-herd regressions and through log-likelihood ratio tests.  相似文献
10.
Test-day variances for permanent environmental effects within and across parities were estimated along with lactation stage, age, and pregnancy effects for use with a test-day model. Data were test-day records for calvings since 1990 for Jerseys and for Holsteins from California, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wisconsin. Single-trait repeatability models were fitted for milk, fat, and protein test-day yields. Method R and a preconditioned conjugate gradient equation solver were used for variance component estimation because of large data sets. Test-day yields were adjusted for environmental effects of calving age, calving season, and milking frequency and for estimated breeding value (EBV) expressed on a daily basis. To assess the effect of adjustments, test-day yields also were analyzed without adjustment. For adjusted data, permanent environmental variances across parities relative to phenotypic variance ranged from 8.3 to 15.2% for milk, 4.4 to 8.3% for fat, and 6.9 to 11.0% for protein across regions and breeds; relative permanent environmental variances within parity ranged from 31.4 to 34.7% for milk, 18.2 to 22.3% for fat, and 28.3 to 29.1% for protein and were similar across regions and breeds. Adjustment for EBV reduced permanent environmental variance across parities and removed cow genetic variance. Relative permanent environmental variances within parity from unadjusted test-day yields were nearly identical to those from adjusted test-day yields. For unadjusted test-day yields, heritabilities ranged from 0.19 to 0.30 for milk, 0.13 to 0.15 for fat, and 0.17 to 0.23 for protein. Adjustments for lactation stage, age at milking, previous days open, and days pregnant were estimated from adjusted test-day yields using the same single-trait repeatability models and variance ratios estimated for permanent environment within and across parities. Those adjustments can be applied additively to test-day yields before evaluation analysis. Variance components and solutions for the various effects can be used to calculate test-day deviations in an analysis within herd that contributes to an analysis across herds.  相似文献
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