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1.
Flood hazard assessment of Atrato River in Colombia   总被引:6,自引:3,他引:3  
The flood hazard caused by Atrato River in Quibdó, northwest of Colombia is assessed using statistical modeling techniques (Gumbel and GRADEX), hydraulic modeling with HEC-RAS and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Three flood hazard maps for return periods of 10, 20 and 50 years are generated. The flood hazard modeling reveals that the flooded zone is more significant out of the left (West) bank than out of the right (East) bank of Atrato River. For the three return periods the maximum depth of water reached by the river and extent of flooding are estimated. Sensitivity analysis on roughness coefficient and peak discharge is performed. For 50 year return period (Q =3054 m3/s), water depth on the left and right bank of Atrato River is 3.7 m and 3.1 m, respectively. This information is useful in defining the minimum height of flood protection structures such as dikes to protect the area from flooding. The results can be useful for evacuation planning, estimation of damages and post flood recovery efforts.  相似文献
2.
A numerical catchment-scale model capable of simulating diffuse water pollution is necessary in sustainable environmental management for better implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. This paper provides critical reviews of most popular and free models for diffuse water modelling, with detailed sources and application potential. Based upon these reviews, further work of selecting and testing the HSPF model was carried out, with a case study in the Upper Bann Catchment, Northern Ireland. The calibrated and validated HSPF model can well represent the characteristics of surface water quantity and quality. Climate change scenario evaluation in 5 years showed that when the annual mean temperature increase 3°C the mean yearly total runoff volume will decrease by 11.1% and the mean daily river flow 11.4%. If 20% crop and pasture land is converted into forest land in the study area, the mean river concentration of nitrate, nitrite, NH4 and PO4 in 5 years will decrease by 19.4%, 33.3%, 31.3% and 31.3% respectively. When applying filter strip method in 80% crop and pasture land in the area, the reduction of the mean concentration of nitrate, nitrite, NH4 and PO4 in 5 years will be 15.3%, 33.3%, 31.3%, and 5.6% respectively. This study shows that HSPF is a suitable model in handling diffuse source water pollution, which can be introduced into the Programme of Measures in the River Basin Management Plans for better implementation of the EU WFD.  相似文献
3.
Integrated watershed management is required to ensure the reasonable use of resources and reconcile interactions among natural and human systems. In the present study, an interval fuzzy multiobjective programming (IFMOP) method was used to solve an integrated watershed management problem. Based on system analysis, an IFMOP model suitable for a lake watershed system {IFMOPLWS} was developed and applied to the Lake Qionghai watershed in China. Scenario analysis and an interactive approach were used in the solution process. In this manner, various system components were incorporated into one framework for holistic consideration and optimization. Integrality and uncertainty, as well as the multiobjective and dynamic characteristics of the watershed system, were well addressed. Using two scenarios, two planning schemes were generated. Agriculture, tourism, macroeconomics, cropland use, water supply, forest coverage, soil erosion, and water pollution were fully interpreted and compared to identify a preferable planning alternative for local agencies. This study showed that the IFMOPLWS is a powerful tool for integrated watershed management planning and can provide a solid base for sustainable watershed management.  相似文献
4.
Detailed analyses of hydrological and water quality variables are very important to study the dynamic processes in a river basin. In this study, we have further modified the Enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (ESWAT) model by incorporating hourly evapotranspiration and overland flow routing modules. Results from comparison of the performances by two ESWAT versions indicate that the modified version performed better than the original model. The modified ESWAT model has reasonably reproduced observed time series runoff and most commonly collected water quality data. In addition, input data availability at required spatial and temporal resolutions is the major bottleneck in implementing many detailed hydrological models. In this paper, we have also developed a robust methodology to successfully disaggregate daily rainfall data into hourly datasets. Furthermore, we have assessed the implications of such daily rainfall disaggregation schemes on subsequent simulation of hydrological and water quality variables at river basin level. The outcomes suggest that the multivariate rainfall disaggregation scheme better reproduced observed rainfall and runoff data.  相似文献
5.
There is increasing evidence that global climate variability and change is affecting the quality and availability of water supplies. Integrated water resources development, use, and management strategies, represent an effective approach to achieve sustainable development of water resources in a changing environment with competing demands. It is also a key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It is critical that integrated water management strategies must incorporate the impacts of climate variability and change to reduce vulnerability of the poor, strengthen sustainable livelihoods and support national sustainable development. UNDP's strategy focuses on developing adaptation in the water governance sector as an entry point within the framework of poverty reduction and national sustainable development. This strategy aims to strengthen the capacity of governments and civil society organizations to have access to early warning systems, ability to assess the impact of climate variability and change on integrated water resources management, and developing adaptation intervention through hands-on learning by undertaking pilot activities.  相似文献
6.
Artificial Neural Network Models of Watershed Nutrient Loading   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
This paper illustrates the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as predictors of the nutrient load from a watershed. Accurate prediction of pollutant loadings has been recognized as important for determining effective water management strategies. This study compares Haith??s Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) and Arnold??s Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to multilayer artificial neural networks for monthly watershed load modeling. The modeling results indicate that calibrated feed-forward ANN models provide prediction which are always essentially as accurate as those obtained with GWLF and the SWAT, and some times much more accurate. With its flexibility and computation efficiency, the ANN should be a useful tool to obtain a quick simulation assessment of nutrient loading for various management strategies.  相似文献
7.
Phytoplankton growth dynamics in offshore Lake Erie during mid-winter   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The phytoplankton community in offshore Lake Erie in mid-winter was active but little net growth was occurring which suggests that high reported accumulations of phytoplankton in this lake in February are likely the product of previous bloom conditions. We measured phytoplankton dynamics as size-specific growth and loss rates of phytoplankton using dilution assays and antibiotic assays in ice-covered offshore waters of Lake Erie during the mid-winter period in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Total chlorophyll-a specific rates (average ± standard deviation) measured using dilution assays for growth ([0.72 ± 0.35/d]) and loss ([0.98 ± 0.36/d]) were closely matched. Growth and loss rates of picocyanobacteria determined using an antibiotic technique ranged from − 0.10 to 1.22/d and − 0.11 to − 2.35/d, respectively. The results indicate a trend of higher grazing rate than growth rate but that this difference is not significantly different from zero, suggesting a state of phytoplankton population size equilibrium at this time of year in the waters sampled.  相似文献
8.
Performance Assessment of Secondary Settling Tanks Using CFD Modeling   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Amongst the principal separation processes used to treat effluents in the water industry is the sedimentation of solid particulates from the carrier fluid known as mixed liquor by the force of gravity. New York City DEP is in the process of upgrading its Upper East River water pollution control plants (WPCP??s) to incorporate biological nitrogen removal (BNR). The rectangular final settling tanks (FSTs) are a central link in the treatment process and often times a limiting factor in terms of the solids handling capacity especially when high throughput requirements need to be met. The objective of this study was to develop a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model based on the exact geometry of the existing Gould II type FSTs in Battery ??E?? at the Wards Island WPCP and calibrate and validate it with in-situ data collected at the site. The goal of this study is to illustrate how the different modeling approaches applied on the physical phenomena that take place in the tank affect the outcome of a CFD model and its predictions. It is common for internal baffles to be added at the inlet and within the tank to handle high flow requirements such as wet weather storms. This model has been used as a tool to assess the internal behavior of such baffles and assess the clarifier??s performance based on different inlet baffle configurations.  相似文献
9.
An automatic calibration of water quality model is developed in this research. Automatic calibration as the process to determine the parameters appearing in the equations of a 2-dimensional, hydrodynamic, and water quality models (CE-QUAL-W2) is carried out with Particle Swarm technique as an optimization tool. In the calibration of the CE-QUAl-W2 model, evaporation as a significant parameter influences the thermal profile and water surface elevation in reservoir, simultaneously. Therefore to consider the simultaneous effects of the water temperature variations on water surface elevation in the reservoir, a multi objective technique is used to minimize the weighted sum of total deviations of temperature from field data at check points on monitoring days and those of water surface elevation on daily monitoring period. The proposed approach overcomes the high computational efforts required if a conventional calibration search technique was used, while retaining the quality of the final calibration results. The automatic calibration approach is applied in temperature and water budget calibration of Karkheh reservoir in Iran. Applying the proposed automatic calibration approach, shows the produced results by the CE-QUAL-W2 model with the calibrated coefficients agree closely with a set of field data.  相似文献
10.
Role of plume dynamics phase in a deepwater oil and gas release model   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Offshore exploration and production of oil and gas have increased significantly in the last decade. Computer models are used in emergency response, contingency planning, and impact assessment to simulate the behavior of oil and gas if accidentally released from a well, pipeline, or ship. There are two types of models used for this purpose-models that have both plume dynamics stage and the advection diffusion stage and models that are of simplified nature that has only the advection diffusion stage. This paper compares both types of models and shows what information are similar and what are different and under what conditions. The paper also examines in detail about different criteria that can be used as the transition point (TLPD) from plume dynamics stage to advection diffusion stage. Key findings of the paper are that except for slow leaks the two types of models give different results for surfacing time and location. This is important because sometimes the two models may show profiles that correspond to different times to be similar in shape. The present parametric study suggests that the transition point for TLPD can be based on the buoyant oil droplet velocity corresponding to the median oil droplet size.  相似文献
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