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1.
Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Tarim River Basin   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:21  
The plausible association between climate change and the variability of water resources in the Tarim River basin, west China is investigated in this study. The long-term trend of the hydrological time series including temperature, precipitation, and streamflow are detected by using both parametric and nonparametric techniques. The possible association between the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and these three kinds of time series are tested. This study enhances the knowledge of the climate change impact on water resources in the Tarim River basin. The conclusion obtained in this investigation shows that the temperature experienced a significant monotonic increase at the 5% level of significance during the past 50 yr, and precipitation also exhibited an upward tendency during the past several decades. A significant jump is also detected for both time series around 1986. This may be resulted from the possible impact of climate change, although the interior climate mechanism needs further investigation. Although precipitation and the streamflow from the headwater of the Tarim River exhibited significant increase, decreasing trend has been detected in the streamflow along the mainstream of the river. It implies that anthropogenic activities instead of the climate change dominated the streamflow cessation and the drying-up of the river. Results also showed that no significant association exists between the ENSO and the temperature, precipitation and streamflow in the study area. This conclusion shows that the water curtailment, river desiccation, and ecosystem deterioration in the Tarim River basin may be mainly resulted from the impact of human activities.  相似文献
2.
气候变化对海河流域水文特性的影响   总被引:6,自引:6,他引:44  
袁飞  谢正辉  任立良  黄 琼 《水利学报》2005,36(3):0274-0279
本文应用大尺度陆面水文模型——可变下渗能力模型VIC(Variable Infdtration Capacity)与区域气候变化影响研究模型PRECIS(Providing Regional Climatefor Impacts Studies)耦合,对气候变化情景下海河流域水资源的变化趋势进行预测。结果表明:未来气候情景下,即使海河流域降水量增加,年平均径流量仍将可能减少,预示海河流域的水资源将十分短缺;若考虑21世纪人口增长因素,海河流域的水资源形势将更加严峻;未来气候情景下,汛期的径流量增加,说明海河流域发生洪水的可能性将增大。  相似文献
3.
气候变化对华北地区主要作物需水量的影响   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:37  
刘晓英  林而达 《水利学报》2004,35(2):0077-0082
在未来温度上升1~4℃的情景下,研究了气候变暖对我国华北地区主要作物需水量的影响。结果显示,气候变暖对不同作物需水量的影响程度不同。其中对冬小麦需水量的影响最大,对棉花的影响次之,对夏玉米的影响最小。当生长期内温度上升1~4℃时,冬小麦需水量将增加2.6%~28.2%,相当于11.8~153.0mm;夏玉米需水量将增加1.7%~18.1%,相当于7.2~84 1mm;棉花需水量将增加1.7%~18.3%,相当于7.9~96 2mm。说明冬小麦对未来气候变暖的适应能力很差,而夏玉米和棉花的适应能力相对较强。气候变化对作物需水量的影响存在一定地域性差异。其中对济南的作物需水量影响最大。当温度增加1~4℃时,冬小麦、夏玉米、棉花需水量将依次增加15.4~153.0mm、8.3~84.1mm、9.6~96.2mm。对太原的作物需水量影响最小。当温度上升1~4℃时,3种作物的需水量依次增加11.7~114.5mm、6.9~68.3mm、7.9~78.0mm,比济南分别低24%~25%、17%~19%和18%~19%。按华北地区目前的种植结构估算,温度上升1~4℃将使整个地区冬小麦的需水增加14.7~191亿m 3;夏玉米的需水增加5.87~68.6亿m3;棉花的需水增加1.35~16.5亿m 3。未来气候变暖将使华北地区业已紧张的水资源供需矛盾将更加突出。  相似文献
4.
The impacts of climate change and human activities on the surface runoff were analyzed by the Mann–Kendall and trend analysis methods based on the hydrological, meteorological and socioeconomic data over the last 50 years in the Tarim River basin. Results show that the runoff in the headstreams increased but that in the mainstreams decreased significantly during the past 50 years. The former is a response to climate change, and the later is due to human activities. The surface runoff in the mainstreams decreased by 41.59, 63.77 and 75.15% in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, respectively, as compared to that without being disturbed by human activities in the same period. The main human activities are the irrigated agriculture combined with population increase in the region. As a consequence, the ecosystem in the lower reaches of Tarim River has degenerated, largely owing to inappropriate allocation of water resources.  相似文献
5.
气候变化对海河流域降水量影响机理分析   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:4  
气候的形成和变化受多种因子的影响和制约.人类活动既能影响大气和下垫面从而使气候发生变化,又能直接影响气候.温室效应引起的气候变化,是通过大气环流和水汽输送等因素影响降水,同时也和海河流域地理位置、地形地貌有关.通过对海河流域降雨形成过程的机理分析,研究气候变化对海河流域降水量影响,对进一步认识该区水资源状况有非常重要的作用.  相似文献
6.
The Mediterranean region is undergoing rapid local and global social and environmental changes. All indicators point to an increase in environmental and water scarcity problems with negative implications towards current and future sustainability. Water management in Mediterranean countries is challenged these pressures and needs to evolve to reach the target of increasing population with reliable access to freshwater established by the Millennium Development Goals. This paper first reviews and evaluates current and future social and environmental pressures on water resources, including climate change. The results show that pressures are not homogeneous across the region and sectors of water use. Second the paper evaluates the adaptation strategies to cope with water scarcity, including technology, use of strategic groundwater, and management. Finally, the paper proposes a framework for managing the risk of water scarcity based on preparedness rather than a crisis approach. The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination.  相似文献
7.
With a yearly precipitation of 200 mm in most of the country, Jordan is considered one of the least water-endowed regions in the world. Water scarcity in Jordan is exacerbated by growing demands driven by population and industrial growth and rising living standards. Major urban and industrial centers in Jordan including the Capital Amman are concentrated in the northern highlands, mostly contained within the boundaries of the Zarqa River Watershed (ZRW). The ZRW is the third most productive basin in the greater Jordan River System. King Talal Dam was built a few kilometers upstream of the Zarqa-Jordan confluence to regulate its input mostly for the benefit of agricultural activities in the Jordan Valley. Concerns regarding the sensitivity of the ZRW to potential climate change have prompted the authors to carry out the current study. The methodology adopted is based on simulating the hydrological response of the basin under alternative climate change scenarios. Utilizing the BASINS-HSPF modeling environment, scenarios represent ing climate conditions with ±20% change in rainfall, and 1°C, 2°C and 3.5°C increases in average temperature were simulated and assessed. The HSPF model was calibrated for the ZRW using records spanning from 1980 through 1994. The model was validated against an independent data record extending from 1995 through 2002. Calibration and verification results were assessed based on linear regression fitting of monthly and daily flows. Monthly calibration and verifications produced good fit with regression coefficient r values equal to 0.928 and 0.923, respectively. Assessment based on daily records show much more modest r value of 0.785. The study shows that climate warming can dramatically impact runoffs and groundwater recharge in the ZRW. However the impact of warming can be greatly influenced by significant changes in rainfall volume.  相似文献
8.
气候变化和人类活动对老哈河流域径流的影响   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:3  
通过趋势及突变检验将径流序列划分为"天然基准期"和"人类活动影响期",依据径流对降水及潜在蒸发的敏感性,定量分析了我国北方老哈河流域气候变化和人类活动对径流的影响。结果表明:1964年以来,老哈河流域径流呈显著减少趋势,其变化倾向率为-0.47 mm/a;流域径流受气候变化和人类活动双重影响,其中人类活动对径流起减少作用,在20世纪八九十年代及2000—2008年人类活动对径流深的减少量分别为10.9 mm、6.3 mm及17.9 mm;气候变化对径流在80年代和2000—2008年起减少作用,减少量分别为10.0mm和8.5 mm,而90年代气候变化对径流起增加作用,增加量为12.4 mm。  相似文献
9.
长江源区近32年径流变化及影响因素分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
 以长江源区控制站直门达1978-2009 年实测径流量序列为基础,运用 Mann-Kendall 趋势分析法和滑动 T 检验方法,对径流量的趋势变化和突变进行了详细分析,并对其影响因素降水、气温和下垫面条件等进行了分析。结果表明 : 长江源区近 32 年来年径流量总体呈现增加态势,但趋势不显著,年径流序列 2004 年前后发生突变;长江源区降水序列在 2002 年前后发生突变,气温序列呈显著增加趋势,长江源区降水增加和冰雪消融是长江源区径流增加的主要原因。  相似文献
10.
Quantifying the Urban Water Supply Impacts of Climate Change   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:3  
The difference in timing between water supply and urban water demand necessitates water storage. Existing reservoirs were designed based upon hydrologic data from a given historical period, and, given recent evidence for climatic change, may be insufficient to meet demand under future climate change scenarios. The focus of this study is to present a generally applicable methodology to assess the ability of existing storage to meet urban water demand under present and projected future climatic scenarios, and to determine the effectiveness of storage capacity expansions. Uncertainties in climatic forcing and projected demand scenarios are considered explicitly by the models. The reservoir system in San Diego, California is used as a case study. We find that the climate change scenarios will be more costly to the city than scenarios using historical hydrologic parameters. The magnitude of the expected costs and the optimal investment policy are sensitive to projected population growth and the accuracy to which our model can predict spills.  相似文献
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