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1.
SUBSIDENCE, SEDIMENTATION AND PETROLEUM SYSTEMS   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
Analysis of a number of petroleum provinces has emphasised the importance of sedimentary factors as well as subsidence processes. Subsidence appears to depend on a small number of mechanisms - tectonics, heat flow and gravity. Taking into account thegeodynamic context in which these processes develop, it is possible to compile a classification of subsidence types which is distinct from the usual classifications in terms of basins. The type of subsidence influences the deposition rate, which determines both the potential and the habitat of petroleum. Moreover, existing statistics sho w that the number of "giant"fielako, r thep otential of a petroleum province largely depend on the types of subsidence and subsequent tectonic processes.
However, it is also important to consider the history of a basin in terms of flows: geothermal flows from the mantle and crust; and water and hydrocarbon flows through the sedimentary volume. For these flow transfers, climatic and sedimentary factors, as well as variations in sea level, play a role which is as important as subsidence and uplift in controlling the distribution of non-deposition areas, unconformities, seals and reservoirs. For example, periods of generalized transgression are favorable to both the development of carbonate platforms, and the formation of impervious horizons, seals and source rocks capable of sealing pre-existing rifts.
Therefore, a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of an organized set of geological events (in space and in time) that can be called apetroleum system. In such a system, thesequence ofsubsidencemovements and associatedflows isjust asdecisiveas lithological and geometric factors in the formation of a group of pools. This concept of the succession of geodynamics and sedimentary processes which affect petroleum potential is developed, and specific examples of petroleum systems from the North Sea, the Arabian Platform and the Congo Basin are presented.  相似文献
2.
法国IFP选择性堵水技术   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5  
重点介绍法国石油研究院的堵水技术 (IFP堵水技术 ) ,开发的堵水剂都是相对渗透率改善剂 (RelativePermeabilityModifiers,又称Disproportionate Permea bilityReducer) ,对油或气体的相对渗透率影响并不大。IFP化学溶液满足笼统注入的条件。阐述了IFP堵水技术的特性 ,分析了IFP选井方法和堵水工艺技术 ;还介绍了用IFP技术堵水的典型现场试验 ,包括地下储气库的储气井、开采稠油的水平井、海上的砾石充填井、多层水驱井等。此外也介绍了IFP的最新技术发展的两个主要研究方向 :①针对注水井处理 ,IFP进行了微凝胶深部调剖剂的研究 ;重点是研究对微凝胶的大小及构造的控制。②针对改善笼统注入效果 ,进行了预处理转向剂的研究 ;该转向剂以高分子聚合物的无稳态滞留现象 (称为“桥联吸附”)为基础  相似文献
3.
Accurate estimates of losses occurring during secondary petroleum migration are of vital importance for valid petroleum systems assessments. In this paper, we discuss the development of migration pathways and the corresponding hydrocarbon losses using data from laboratory experiments based on diphasic immiscible draining processes. These experiments permitted us to study the formation of migration pathways, the distribution of non-wetting oil along these pathways, and the re-utilization of existing pathways by later pulses of migrating oil.
The configuration of a migration pathway can be characterized by a phase diagram whose coordinates are two dimensionless numbers: the capillary number and the Bond number (a measure of the buoyancy force). NMR imaging was used to measure the saturation of residual oil within the pathways. It was found that, after migration, the average residual oil saturation within a pathway was generally less than 40% at a resolution of 0.4mm. Hydrocarbon losses during migration were estimated as the product of the volumetric proportion of the migrating cluster structure, defined using this spatial resolution, multiplied by the average residual oil saturation in the pathway.  相似文献
4.
5.
Estimates of hydrocarbon losses during migration are critical to petroleum resource assessments based on mass balance calculations. Using knowledge acquired from physical experiments, we conducted numerical experiments to qualitatively simulate migration processes on a basin scale, and we have estimated the proportions of oil lost along different parts of the migration pathway. Between the point where oil is expelled from a source rock and its arrival in a trap, migration pathways were divided into three sections, namely vertical and lateral pathways within the area of the effective source rock (W1), and lateral pathways outside this area (W2).
With reference to the concept of an independent migration unit (IMU), a prism-shaped domain with square top and bottom faces, the proportion of vertical pathways (Q1) and lateral pathways (Q2) in carrier beds in W1 may be estimated, using parameters obtained in migration experiments. The proportion of oil lost in W2 was obtained by statistical analysis of modelled results. It is found that the loss of oil within W2 decreases rapidly with increasing distance from the contact between W1 and W2.
Relative oil losses in migration pathways were estimated by considering two typical migration models: a sloping rectangular plate model, and a circular synclinal model. Simulation results show that, for sandstone carrier beds at a basin scale, Q2 is one order of magnitude less than Q1, and losses (Q3) in W2 are two orders of magnitude less than those (Q1+ Q2) in W1.  相似文献
6.
Thermodynamic of thermochemical sulphate reduction   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Hydrogen sulphide is likely to become more common in produced hydrocarbon fluids, as the exploitation of deep reservoirs increases and unconventional resources get recovered significantly, such as heavy oils or bitumen. Hydrogen sulphide presence in produced oil and gas results in operational, environmental and treatment problems. Therefore, understanding the origin and the amount of hydrogen sulphide in petroleum reservoirs has great importance for petroleum engineers.Three natural processes are set forth to explain the generation of H2S in reservoirs: bacterial sulphate reduction, thermal cracking and thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR). It is the TSR that leads to the largest amount of H2S. This phenomenon involves hydrocarbon oxidation and sulphate reduction and produces as by-products, hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbonate minerals and heavy organo-sulphur compounds. The reaction mechanisms of TSR, as well as its kinetics, are not yet fully understood.In this paper, we checked the thermodynamic feasibility of TSR, at temperatures prevailing in the reservoirs where TSR is encountered.Firstly, we calculated the Gibbs energy of the reactions proposed by Worden and Smalley (Worden R.H. and Smalley P.C., 1996, H2S producing reactions in deep carbonate gas reservoirs: Khuff Formation, Abu Dhabi, Chem. Geol., 133, p. 157–171). We concluded that they are thermodynamically possible from 25 °C, confirming thermodynamic data published by Anisimov (Anisimov L., 1978, Conditions of abiogenic reduction of sulfates in oil and gas bearing basins, Geochem. Int., 15, p. 63) and Yue and co-workers (Yue C., Li S., Ding K., Zhong N., 2003, Study of thermodynamics and kinetics of CH4–CaSO4 and H2S–Fe2O3 systems, Chinese J. chem. Eng., 11, (6), p.696–700., Yue C., Li S., Ding K., Zhong N., 2006, Thermodynamics and kinetics of reaction between C1–C3 hydrocarbons and calcium sulfate in deep carbonate reservoirs, Geochem. J., 40, 87–94).Secondly, we used a non-stoichiometric approach without any pre-requisite chemical scheme this time. We calculated the Gibbs Energy of chemical systems composed by hydrocarbons, sulphur, anhydrite and water. The minimization of the Gibbs Energy lead to find the most probable chemical systems at steady state. Our theoretical results are consistent with the chemical schemes set forth for TSR by Orr (Orr W., 1977, Changes in Sulfur Content and Isotopic Ratios of Sulfur during Petroleum Maturation — study of Big Horn Basin Paleozoic Oils, in R. Campo and J. Goni Eds, Advances in onorganic geochemistry, Madrid Spain, Enadimsa, p. 571–595), by Worden and Smalley (Worden R.H. and Smalley P.C., 1996, H2S producing reactions in deep carbonate gas reservoirs: Khuff Formation, Abu Dhabi, Chem. Geol., 133, p. 157–171) and by Machel (Machel H.G., 2001, Bacterial and thermochemical sulfate reduction in diagenetic settings — old and new insights, Sedimentary Geology, 140, p. 143–175). Moreover, they are in concordance with some in-situ observations: anhydrite and hydrocarbon consumption with simultaneous formation of calcite, hydrogen sulphide and water. Our results showed as well that the larger the number of the carbon atoms in the reactant hydrocarbons, the more irreversible the reaction is.  相似文献
7.
In this paper, we review the types of sedimentary basins which are generated by wrench faulting with particular reference to the Late Neogene Eastern Betic Shear Zone, a well-documented segment of the Trans-Alboran Shear Zone. The general characteristics of this wrench "corridor" are described, including the role of inherited structures. The diversity of basin types is emphasised, as is the coexistence of basins which developed under compressional or extensional regimes.
Pull-apart basins do not appear to be the most widespread type of basin in the Eastern Betic Shear Zone. Rather, compressional "groove-shaped synclines" which run parallel to master strike-slip faults (regardless of their orientation or direction of movement) are more typical structures. They are characterised by intense synsedimentary deformation and reworking of sediments, depositional processes being dominated by gravity flows. The basins are relatively short-lived and generally undergo structural inversion. Sedimentary basins also form in extensional areas, most significantly in the triangular zones which occupy the extensional quadrant of a pseudo- conjugate strike-slip fault system.
In the Eastern Betics, it appears that compressional basins are more efficient than extensional basins in terms of their subsidence and sedimentation rates, the thickness of the clastic fill, and the intensity of synsedimentary deformation. Compressional basins may therefore be the more favourable with respect to potential hydrocarbon accumulations.  相似文献
8.
COAL RANK AND TYPE VARIATION IN ROCK-EVAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND COALS   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Rock-Eval and coal analytical data are compared for New Zealand coal samples ranging from peat to medium-volatile bituminous coal. Most are humic coals within the New Zealand coal band, which is representative of the Type III maturation series defined for kerogens. However, four were chosen as particularly high-hydrogen coal types. Relations between individual parameters — principally H/C, O/C, Tmax, HI and OI — are generally similar to those of Espitalié et al. (1985, 1986), but important differences include a broader range of HI values in the peats and lignites, and a differentiation between maturation and coal-type effects in the relationship of HI to H/C. Correlations of the effects of maturation on HI, OI, Tmax and vitrinite reflectance are made by the use of the independent Rank(S) scale of Suggate (1959).
Rank(S)/reflectance relations vary between well sequences. The Rank(S) scale is used to integrate biomarker data on hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The oil zone ("oil window") corresponds to the range of bituminous coals, beginning at Rank(S) 10 (Tmax425°C) and ending at Rank(S) 17 (Tmax estimated at 550°C). Release of oil begins at or soon after Rank(S) 12.5 (Tmax 435°C), and culminates in the range Rank(S) 14.5- 15.5 (Tmax 460–480°C). For the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, the results imply that a substantially greater volume of coal measures has been subject to oil generation and migration processes than previously thought.  相似文献
9.
Major hydrocarbon accumulations are located in western Ukraine within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic flysch sequence in the frontal parts of the External Carpathians, and in the adjacent autochthonous foreland. The accumulations occur in three different structural settings: in the Carpathian flysch belt; in the pre-Neogene foreland autochthon; and in Miocene foredeep molasse. The petroleum potential of organic-rich rocks belonging to a number of different sedimentary cycles and tectonic units was studied by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.
Two significant organic-rich units, both with a basin-scale distribution, occur within the External Carpathians: (i) a unit comprising the Lower Cretaceous Shypot and Spas Formations; and (ii) the Oligocene-Lower Miocene Menilite Formation. The Menilite Formation includes the principal source rocks in this area, although Lower Cretaceous source rocks may also have generated hydrocarbons. Thermal maturation of the flysch and consequent petroleum generation resulted mainly from tectonic burial during Miocene overthrusting. In the external parts of the Carpathian Flysch Belt, oil generation in the Menilite Formation begins at a depth of around 4.2 km and ceases at around 6 km. In more internal tectonic units, a "frozen oil kitchen" occurs at shallower depths, indicating an increasing amount of tectonic uplift and erosion.
The autochthonous foreland is part of the SW margin of the East European Platform, and is partially overthrust by the Carpathian orogen. Rocks belonging to several different sedimentary cycles are present here. Pre-Mesozoic rocks in the foreland are overmature, at least within the central and SE parts of the study area. Petroleum accumulations are therefore most probably confined to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover, within which the Middle Jurassic Kokhanivka Formation has the highest generation potential.  相似文献
10.
油气井随钻实时可视决策系统   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
毛敏  贾正 《录井工程》2006,17(4):54-56
石油钻井技术水平的提高,计算机信息及网络技术的迅速发展,促使油气钻井过程中的信息共享已成为现实。中法渤海地质服务有限责任公司为适应这一发展的需要,开发研制了油气钻井过程实时可视决策系统。围绕该系统的3个组成部分——数据采集、传输和钻井跟踪决策,简述其功能和整个系统的工作流程、特点和优势,介绍了钻井、录井、测井等井场协同作业方与后方指挥决策部门多方协作钻水平分支井的应用效果,验证了系统的可行性和可靠性.阐述了系统的研发及应用对推动井场信息化、数字化进展,进而实现群体科学优化钻井的重要作用。  相似文献
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