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1.
PERMIAN AND TRIASSIC STRATIGRAPHY, ZAGROS BASIN, SOUTH-WEST IRAN   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
The Permian and Triassic beds deposited in the Zagros Basin form a massive carbonate and evaporite sequence in excess of 2000m. These strata were divided into clearly recognizable and mappable lithostratigraphic units and major lithofacies types using surface exposures, subsurface log information and sample cuttings .
Formation and member designations are given to distinct and widespread lithostratigraphic units and where possible, the boundaries of these units are selected to coincide with sedimentary gaps or boundaries of sedimentary cycles .
A well type-section and a surface reference section are established to illustrate the distribution of these units both vertically and horizontally .
Major unconformities were observed and documented at the base of the Permian and at the top of the Triassic, a smaller break was noted between the Triassic and Permian sediments .
Revision of the Jurassic-Triassic boundary is made, based on this new stratigraphic evidence .  相似文献
2.
Coarse grid generation from finely gridded geological model is a main step in reservoir simulation. Coarse grid generation algorithms aim at optimizing size, number and location of the grid blocks by identifying the important geological and flow features which control flow in porous media. By optimizing coarse grid structure we can improve accuracy of the coarse scale simulation results to reproduce fine grid behavior. A number of techniques have been proposed in the literature. We present a novel coarse grid generation procedure based on vorticity preservation between fine and coarse grids. In the procedure, the coarse grid mesh tries to capture variations in both permeability and fluid velocity using a single physical quantity — “vorticity” which is extracted from single-phase flow simulation. One essential element in the procedure is that the improved coarse grid (ICG) has minimum single-phase vorticity error with respect to the fine grid vorticity. Our numerical investigations on modeling two-phase flow demonstrate that the ICG represents fine grid flow behavior very closely. In addition, our analyses show that the use of single-phase vorticity has only a minor impact on the ICG generation, and its performance is not affected by two-phase flow parameters such as mobility ratio.  相似文献
3.
The Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation is one of the most important petroleum reservoir units in the Zagros Basin of south and SW Iran. It mainly consists of limestones and dolomitic limestones with interbedded shales, together with a few intervals of sandstone and gypsum assigned to the Ahwaz and Kalhur Members, respectively. The Asmari Formation rests on the thin-bedded limestones of the Jahrum Formation (Paleocene-Eocene). In this paper, we report on the lithofacies characteristics of these two formations using data from three measured outcrop sections near Shiraz in SW Iran. From field and petrographic data, we have identified four major lithofacies and twelve subfacies which are interpreted to have been deposited in open-marine, shoal, lagoon and tidal flat settings.
We show that the Asmari and Jahrum Formations constitute two separate depositional sequences which are separated by a thin palaeosol, representing a type-one sequence boundary which can be correlated with global curves of relative sea-level. Each depositional sequence is composed of many metre-scale shallowing-upward parasequences. This is the first time that the Asmari and Jahrum Formations have been differentiated in the study area. We hope that this study will lead to a better understanding of the Asmari Formation in the subsurface in other parts of the Zagros Basin.  相似文献
4.
A series of experiments on two-phase, air-water flow in a flowline-riser geometry have been made. The riser has a catenary-shaped form (10.5 m high), and the flowline has a 2-degree downward inclination toward the riser-base (10.16 cm ID). Experimental data were used to characterize the severe slugging and unstable flows in terms of pressure cycling and fluid production characteristics. A model to study dynamic behavior of severe slugging flow in a pipeline-riser system was also developed under the environment of the OLGA2000 code, and experimental test results were compared with the OLGA model predictions. The motive for this work was to identify areas that pose substantial difficultly to the code for the simulation of severe slugging in a catenary-shaped riser. In addition, numerical experiments, exploring some of the reasons for difference between experimental and simulation results, have been presented in this article.  相似文献
5.
Monitoring the aging of beers using a bioelectronic tongue   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
This paper deals with the implementation and the application of a bioelectronic tongue including three enzymatic biosensors based on tyrosinase and phthalocyanines as electron mediators, to evaluate the changes that occur during the aging of beers. For this purpose, alcoholic and non alcoholic beers, packaged in can and bottle, have been analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical signals showed significant changes during the aging process. The features extracted from the cyclic voltammograms have been used to perform Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Data have revealed a clear discrimination among the beer classes in the aging process and the results were confirmed by Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) with Radial Basis Functions (RBF) and FeedForward Networks with Backpropagation (BP) learning method. The bioelectronic tongue has demonstrated a good capability to discriminate and classify the beer types satisfactorily in such a way, for all beer treatments, full classification accuracy was found.  相似文献
6.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical and microbial properties of traditional Iranian fish sauce, mahyaveh. Fish sauce samples used in this study originated from five different locations in the Southern part of Iran. The pH of mahyaveh samples from different locations was in the range of 4.89-7.55 and NaCl concentration was in the range of 7.48-17.1%. The overall mean of TVB-N in all the samples tested was 3098 mg/kg. Histamine, with the overall mean of 2662 mg/kg, was found to be the main biogenic amine in the Iranian fish sauce. The high histamine content can be related to the high levels of bacterial count especially enterobacteriaceae (overall mean of 3.41 log cfu/g) and lactic acid bacteria (overall mean of 4.13 log cfu/g) in this product. Spermidine was the second dominant biogenic amine, while putrescine and tyramine were present at low concentrations in samples from different locations. Consequently, the major problem associated with this product is the very high histamine content. Mahyaveh, therefore, might not be completely safe for human consumption and excessive intake of this product on a regular basis is not recommended.  相似文献
7.
The pigging operation is a common practice in the petroleum and gas industry. Pigging flow lines is employed for many reasons including cleaning deposits such as wax layers, the removal of liquids and condensate, the separation of products pumped one after the other in the same pipeline, measurement, and control and flow line inspection. In this paper, the mathematical modeling of the transient motion of a pig through liquid and gas pipelines is presented. For this purpose, the fluid flow equations were combined with a linear momentum equation for the pig. The nonlinear equations are solved under an unsteady state condition by the method of characteristics (MOC) with a regular rectangular grid through the pipeline under appropriate initial and boundary conditions. From this simulation, the pig position, optimum flow rate in upstream flow and the time that the pig reaches the end of the pipeline are obtained. Comparison of the simulation results with the field data of liquid flow through the pipeline from KG to AG located in Iran show that the derived mathematical models are effective for the prediction of position and pig velocity under the given operational conditions of a pipeline. Similar results are also obtained for gas flow through the pipeline from Nar-1 to Nar-2 located in Iran, in comparison with the field data.  相似文献
8.
A correlation approach for prediction of crude oil viscosities   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The role of reservoir fluid viscosity for reservoir evaluation in performance calculations, planning thermal methods of enhanced oil recovery, evaluation of hydrocarbon reserves and designing production equipment and pipelines makes its accurate determination necessary. Reservoir oil viscosity is usually measured isothermally at reservoir temperature. However, at temperature other than reservoir temperature these data are estimated by empirical correlations. High dependency of oil viscosity on fluid nature and fluid source causes the unique application of these correlations to special cases from which they have been derived.Here, based on Iranian oil reservoirs data; new correlations have been developed for prediction of dead, saturated and under-saturated oil viscosities. These correlations have been derived using so many oil viscosity data. Validity and accuracy of these correlations have been confirmed by comparing the obtained results of these correlations and other ones with experimental data for so many Iranian oil samples. In contrast to other correlations which need so many specific parameters for oil viscosity prediction, this type of correlations need only some field data which always are available. Checking the results of these correlations shows that the obtained results of Iranian oil viscosities in this work are in agreement with experimental data compared with other correlations.  相似文献
9.
10.
The Upper Palaeocene (Thanetian) Chehel-Kaman Formation in the Kopet-Dagh Basin of NE Iran is principally composed of carbonates with minor siliciclastics and evaporites. Six stratigraphic sections were measured and more than 1,000 samples were collected for petrographic analysis, together with analyses of carbon and oxygen isotopes and trace element content. Four major carbonate lithofacies (and 13 subfacies) have been identified in previous studies and are interpretd in terms of deposition in a shallow-marine environment.
The petrographic analyses indicate that the Chehel-Kaman Formation carbonates have undergone a complex diagenetic history which includes compaction, cementation, micritization, dissolution, silicification, dolomitization, neomorphism and fracturing. δ18O and δ13C values in Chehel-Kaman Formation limestones range between +0.8 and -15.1%0 PDB, and -2.82 and +3.5%0 PDB, respectively. These variations are interpreted to reflect meteoric and burial diagenetic processes. Variations in trace-element concentrations (Fe and Mn increased while Na decreased) also indicated the effects of meteoric flushing. The limestones appear to have been formed at about 28°C.
Chehel-Kaman Formation dolomites were divided into d1 (finely-crystalline) and d2 (coarsely-crystalline) types. Petrographic and geochemical results indicated that the d1 dolomites formed under sabkha conditions from a parental solution at around 26°C, while d2 dolomites formed during burial diagenesis with much hotter pore fluids (around 72°C). The paragenetic sequence indicates that primary porosity decreased during early stages of diagenesis, although secondary porosity was subsequently created improving the reservoir quality of the carbonates.  相似文献
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