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1.
The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of one-dimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a "true" two-dimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. Thus, unlike other approaches, such as curvelets, that first develop a transform in the continuous domain and then discretize for sampled data, our approach starts with a discrete-domain construction and then studies its convergence to an expansion in the continuous domain. Specifically, we construct a discrete-domain multiresolution and multidirection expansion using nonseparable filter banks, in much the same way that wavelets were derived from filter banks. This construction results in a flexible multiresolution, local, and directional image expansion using contour segments, and, thus, it is named the contourlet transform. The discrete contourlet transform has a fast iterated filter bank algorithm that requires an order N operations for N-pixel images. Furthermore, we establish a precise link between the developed filter bank and the associated continuous-domain contourlet expansion via a directional multiresolution analysis framework. We show that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves. Finally, we show some numerical experiments demonstrating the potential of contourlets in several image processing applications. Index Terms-Contourlets, contours, filter banks, geometric image processing, multidirection, multiresolution, sparse representation, wavelets.  相似文献
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3.
Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
Objective methods for assessing perceptual image quality traditionally attempted to quantify the visibility of errors (differences) between a distorted image and a reference image using a variety of known properties of the human visual system. Under the assumption that human visual perception is highly adapted for extracting structural information from a scene, we introduce an alternative complementary framework for quality assessment based on the degradation of structural information. As a specific example of this concept, we develop a Structural Similarity Index and demonstrate its promise through a set of intuitive examples, as well as comparison to both subjective ratings and state-of-the-art objective methods on a database of images compressed with JPEG and JPEG2000.  相似文献
4.
Mutual information has developed into an accurate measure for rigid and affine monomodality and multimodality image registration. The robustness of the measure is questionable, however. A possible reason for this is the absence of spatial information in the measure. The present paper proposes to include spatial information by combining mutual information with a term based on the image gradient of the images to be registered. The gradient term not only seeks to align locations of high gradient magnitude, but also aims for a similar orientation of the gradients at these locations. Results of combining both standard mutual information as well as a normalized measure are presented for rigid registration of three-dimensional clinical images [magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)]. The results indicate that the combined measures yield a better registration function does mutual information or normalized mutual information per se. The registration functions are less sensitive to low sampling resolution, do not contain incorrect global maxima that are sometimes found in the mutual information function, and interpolation-induced local minima can be reduced. These characteristics yield the promise of more robust registration measures. The accuracy of the combined measures is similar to that of mutual information-based methods.  相似文献
5.
Survey: interpolation methods in medical image processing   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Image interpolation techniques often are required in medical imaging for image generation (e.g., discrete back projection for inverse Radon transform) and processing such as compression or resampling. Since the ideal interpolation function spatially is unlimited, several interpolation kernels of finite size have been introduced. This paper compares 1) truncated and windowed sinc; 2) nearest neighbor; 3) linear; 4) quadratic; 5) cubic B-spline; 6) cubic; g) Lagrange; and 7) Gaussian interpolation and approximation techniques with kernel sizes from 1 x 1 up to 8 x 8. The comparison is done by: 1) spatial and Fourier analyses; 2) computational complexity as well as runtime evaluations; and 3) qualitative and quantitative interpolation error determinations for particular interpolation tasks which were taken from common situations in medical image processing. For local and Fourier analyses, a standardized notation is introduced and fundamental properties of interpolators are derived. Successful methods should be direct current (DC)-constant and interpolators rather than DC-inconstant or approximators. Each method's parameters are tuned with respect to those properties. This results in three novel kernels, which are introduced in this paper and proven to be within the best choices for medical image interpolation: the 6 x 6 Blackman-Harris windowed sinc interpolator, and the C2-continuous cubic kernels with N = 6 and N = 8 supporting points. For quantitative error evaluations, a set of 50 direct digital X rays was used. They have been selected arbitrarily from clinical routine. In general, large kernel sizes were found to be superior to small interpolation masks. Except for truncated sinc interpolators, all kernels with N = 6 or larger sizes perform significantly better than N = 2 or N = 3 point methods (p < 0.005). However, the differences within the group of large-sized kernels were not significant. Summarizing the results, the cubic 6 x 6 interpolator with continuous second derivatives, as defined in (24), can be recommended for most common interpolation tasks. It appears to be the fastest six-point kernel to implement computationally. It provides eminent local and Fourier properties, is easy to implement, and has only small errors. The same characteristics apply to B-spline interpolation, but the 6 x 6 cubic avoids the intrinsic border effects produced by the B-spline technique. However, the goal of this study was not to determine an overall best method, but to present a comprehensive catalogue of methods in a uniform terminology, to define general properties and requirements of local techniques, and to enable the reader to select that method which is optimal for his specific application in medical imaging.  相似文献
6.
Differential cryptanalysis of DES-like cryptosystems   总被引:42,自引:0,他引:42  
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is the best known and most widely used cryptosystem for civilian applications. It was developed at IBM and adopted by the National Bureau of Standards in the mid 1970s, and has successfully withstood all the attacks published so far in the open literature. In this paper we develop a new type of cryptanalytic attack which can break the reduced variant of DES with eight rounds in a few minutes on a personal computer and can break any reduced variant of DES (with up to 15 rounds) using less than 256 operations and chosen plaintexts. The new attack can be applied to a variety of DES-like substitution/permutation cryptosystems, and demonstrates the crucial role of the (unpublished) design rules.  相似文献
7.
多站时差定位技术研究   总被引:40,自引:9,他引:31  
给出了运动辐射源多站三维时差定位的算法模型和定位误差模型。并针对4种站址布局情况,初步计算了定位精度与布站的关系,给出了各种定位精度曲线仿真结果。  相似文献
8.
A survey of linear singular systems   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
This paper is a brief historical review of linear singular systems, followed by a survey of results on their solution and properties. The frequency domain and time domain approaches are discussed together to sketch an overall picture of the current status of the theory.  相似文献
9.
Efficient iris recognition by characterizing key local variations   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37  
Unlike other biometrics such as fingerprints and face, the distinct aspect of iris comes from randomly distributed features. This leads to its high reliability for personal identification, and at the same time, the difficulty in effectively representing such details in an image. This paper describes an efficient algorithm for iris recognition by characterizing key local variations. The basic idea is that local sharp variation points, denoting the appearing or vanishing of an important image structure, are utilized to represent the characteristics of the iris. The whole procedure of feature extraction includes two steps: 1) a set of one-dimensional intensity signals is constructed to effectively characterize the most important information of the original two-dimensional image; 2) using a particular class of wavelets, a position sequence of local sharp variation points in such signals is recorded as features. We also present a fast matching scheme based on exclusive OR operation to compute the similarity between a pair of position sequences. Experimental results on 2255 iris images show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and comparable to the best iris recognition algorithm found in the current literature.  相似文献
10.
第三代移动通信系统发展现状与展望   总被引:36,自引:2,他引:34  
本文介绍了国内外第三代移动通信的发展现状,已提交ITU的十种第三代移动通信IMT-2000空中接口提案的主要技术特点,及两种主流提案WCDMA和cdma2000的主要区别;描述了第三代移动通信的主要技术特征及未来可能的网络过渡形式;对第三代移动通信系统所可能涉及的主要核心技术进行了展望.  相似文献
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