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We consider a two-echelon multi-item spare parts inventory system in which supply flexibility through both lateral transshipments and direct deliveries are used in response to stock-outs. We develop a simple heuristic to determine the stocking levels for each type of spare part at the central warehouse and local warehouses minimizing the expected total system cost subject to a target level for the average waiting time across items at each local warehouse. Numerical comparisons between the heuristic's objective function values and lower bounds obtained by applying Lagrangian relaxation techniques show that the heuristic performs well. A study to evaluate the relative merits of a two-echelon system as opposed to a single-echelon system is also presented. We find that the presence of lateral transhipment improves the performance of the single-echelon system considerably. A two-echelon system is only worth implementing when lateral transhipments are not possible.  相似文献
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基于非线性控制理论,建立生产商、分销商和零售商在内的三阶供应链动态订货模型,使用混沌理论的李雅普诺夫指数度量突发需求扩散产生的订货量、库存量和缺货量不确定性。通过仿真软件Simulink比较了突发需求情景下,采用APIOBPCS订货策略和OUT订货策略时的系统不确定性变化。研究发现:在降低突发需求产生的库存量、订货量和缺货量不确定性方面,APIOBPCS订货策略效果优于OUT订货模型;采用APIOBPCS订货模型时,预测周期越长,订货周期越短,供应链系统不确定性越小。  相似文献
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