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1.
铀的腐蚀与防腐蚀技术研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
铀是一种非常重要的战略核能源材料,核能技术的和平利用扩大了铀材料的应用领域.纯铀又是化学活性极强的材料,裸露的纯铀在大气中放置很短的时间就会在其表面产生氧化和腐蚀,这对材料的使用和存储带来危害.因此,对铀材必须实行表层保护或整体合金化才能增强其抗腐蚀效果,从而达到预防铀的老化和延长其存储期的目的.从铀材料的应用对抗腐蚀性能要求出发,重点论述了铀的腐蚀行为、不同温度和湿度下铀的氧化反应规律以及对其研究的历史和现状等.综合评述了铀的防腐涂层方法的研究(铀的整体合金化、表面涂层技术、利用化学反应制备保护层、离子注入保护和激光表面改性等5个方面).  相似文献
2.
Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste.  相似文献
3.
The mechanism and chemical nature of uranium and thorium sequestration by a Pseudomonas strain was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) used in the tapping mode elucidated the morphological changes in bacterial cells following uranium and thorium binding. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intracellular sequestration of uranium and thorium throughout the cell cytoplasm with electron dense microprecipitations of accumulated metals. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the cellular deposition of uranium and thorium. EDX and elemental analysis of sorption solution indicated the binding of uranium and thorium by the bacterial biomass via displacement of cellular potassium and calcium. The strong involvement of cellular phosphate, carboxyl and amide groups in radionuclide binding was ascertained by FTIR spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed cellular sequestration of crystalline uranium and thorium phosphates. Overall results indicate that a combined ion-exchange-complexation-microprecipitation mechanism could be involved in uranium and thorium sequestration by this bacterium. Atomic force microscopy and topography analysis revealed an undamaged cell surface with an increase in cell length, width and height following radionuclide accumulation. The arithmetic average roughness (R(a)) and root mean square (RMS) roughness (R(q)) values indicated an increase in surface roughness following uranium and thorium sequestration.  相似文献
4.
In this paper, sorption potentials of uranium ions were studied using alginate polymer beads in diluted aqueous solutions. The ability of alginate beads to adsorb uranium(VI) from aqueous solution has been studied at different optimized conditions of pH, U(VI) concentration, contact time, biomass dosage and temperature. In order to determine the adsorption characteristics, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption data. The thermodynamic parameters such as variations of enthalpy ΔH, entropy ΔS and variation of Gibbs free energy ΔG were calculated from the slope and intercept of ln Kd vs. 1/T plots. The results suggested that alginate beads could be suitable as a sorbent material for adsorption and removal of uranium ions from dilute aqueous solutions.  相似文献
5.
Samples of the secondary uranium minerals collected in the abandoned uranium mine at Pecs (Hungary) were investigated by two micro-techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS). They were applied to locate U-rich particles and identify the chemical form and oxidation state of the uranium compounds. The most abundant mineral was a K and/or Na uranyl sulphate (zippeite group). U(VI) was also present in the form showing intensive Raman scattering at 860 cm−1 which can be attributed to uranium trioxide. This research has shown the successful application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of uranyl mineral species on the level of individual particles.  相似文献
6.
Biosorption of heavy metals and uranium from contaminated wastewaters may represent an innovative purification process. This study investigates the removal ability of unit mass of Pseudomonas putida and starfish for lead, cadmium, and uranium by quantifying the adsorption capacity. The adsorption of heavy metals and uranium by the samples was influenced by pH, and increased with increasing Pb, Cd, and U concentrations. Dead cells adsorbed the largest quantity of all heavy metals than live cells and starfish. The adsorption capacity followed the order: U(VI)>Pb>Cd. The results also suggest that bacterial membrane cells can be used successfully in the treatment of high strength metal-contaminated wastewaters.  相似文献
7.
铀薄膜有助于原子参数的测试研究,目前对铀薄膜研究的报道较少.利用超高真空磁控溅射法在单晶Si片上制备了铀薄膜.通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对铀薄膜的表面形貌进行了观察,利用X射线光电子能谱仪(XPS)及X射线衍射仪(XRD)对铀薄膜的表面结构及元素状态进行了分析和表征.结果表明:铀薄膜呈片状式生长,比较致密、连续,表面由铀及氧化铀组成,之下为纯铀.  相似文献
8.
铌镀层硬度高,化学稳定性好,抗大气腐蚀性能优良,与铀的热膨胀系数接近,可作为铀的防腐蚀镀层,过去对该镀层结构研究不够.为此,采用磁控溅射离子镀技术在贫铀表面以不同偏压制备了铌镀层,利用X射线衍射仪和扫描电镜对镀层的组织结构进行了表征,利用电化学测试技术对铀表面铌镀层在含50 μg Cl~-的KCl水溶液中的抗腐蚀性能进行了研究.结果表明:铌镀层平整致密,但存在靶材飞溅颗粒形成的镀层缺陷,铌镀层为bcc结构,存在择优取向与晶粒细化等特性,为纳米层;在含50μg/g Cl~-的KCl溶液中,金属铌的腐蚀电位-138.5mV高于贫铀的腐蚀电位-641.2 mV,铌镀层对贫铀是一种阴极性镀层,对贫铀的保护基于其对腐蚀介质的物理屏障作用;镀铌贫铀样品的极化电阻和电化学阻抗幅值远大于贫铀,腐蚀电流远小于贫铀,铌镀层对贫铀基体具有良好的腐蚀防护作用.  相似文献
9.
为了改善金属铀的摩擦磨损和抗腐蚀性能,采用等离子体浸没离子注入沉积(PIII&D)技术在铀表面氮化,再沉积Ti/TiN多层膜.利用扫描电镜和X射线衍射分析了薄膜的形貌和组织结构;对薄膜的摩擦磨损和抗湿热腐蚀性能进行了测试.结果表明:薄膜表面致密,界面晶粒柱状生长方式被阻断,晶粒细化;薄膜为Ti和TiN的双相结构,衍射谱中出现了UO_2和U_2N_3的衍射峰;薄膜大大提高了铀基体的摩擦磨损和抗湿热腐蚀性能,调制周期对薄膜性能的影响较大.  相似文献
10.
以钛酸丁酯为钛源采用水热法制备钛纳米管,用透射电镜和X射线衍射分析(XRD)表征材料的形貌和组成以及N_2吸附/脱附比表面积的测试,研究了钛纳米管对铀离子的吸附。结果表明,钛纳米管的外径为8 nm,管长度达2μm,由Na_2Ti_3O_7与H_3Ti_3O_7共存组成;吸附铀容量随着温度的升高、震荡时间的增加平缓升高,最大吸附pH值为5,饱和吸附容量达62.9 mg/g,吸附等温线符合Langmuir和Freundlich等温吸附模型。热力学研究表明,该吸附是吸热自发过程,回收率随着铀量的增加而逐步减小,吸附铀的钛纳米管比未吸附铀的比表面积小.  相似文献
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