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使用几何特征与隐Markov模型的手绘笔画图元分解   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
图元分解是笔交互的关键环节.提出一种将几何特征和隐马尔可夫模型HMM(hidden Markov model)结合的笔画图元分解方法.该方法采用4种关键几何特征来描述笔画的局部几何信息,并通过HMM结构对绘制上下文的建模来描述笔画的全局几何特性,进而利用全局搜索与最佳匹配实现在尽可能不丢失笔画几何信息的前提下对数据进行最大限度的压缩,可在保证系统计算效率的前提下同时完成分割点的查找与图元类型的判定.实验结果表明了该方法的有效性.  相似文献
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This paper analyses a handwriting recognition system for offline cursive words based on HMMs. It compares two approaches for transforming offline handwriting available as two-dimensional images into one-dimensional input signals that can be processed by HMMs. In the first approach, a left–right scan of the word is performed resulting in a sequence of feature vectors. In the second approach, a more subtle process attempts to recover the temporal order of the strokes that form words as they were written. This is accomplished by a graph model that generates a set of paths, each path being a possible temporal order of the handwriting. The recognition process then selects the most likely temporal stroke order based on knowledge that has been acquired from a large set of handwriting samples for which the temporal information was available. We show experimentally that such an offline recognition system using the recovered temporal order can achieve recognition performances that are much better than those obtained with the simple left–right order, and that come close to those of an online recognition system. We have been able to assess the ordering quality of handwriting when comparing true ordering and recovered one, and we also analyze the situations where offline and online information differ and what the consequences are on the recognition performances. For these evaluations, we have used about 30,000 words from the IRONOFF database that features both the online signal and offline signal for each word.  相似文献
3.
Allograph prototype approaches for writer identification have been gaining popularity recently due to its simplicity and promising identification rates. Character prototypes that are used as allographs produce a consistent set of templates that models the handwriting styles of writers, thereby allowing high accuracies to be attained. We hypothesize that the alphabet knowledge inherent in such character prototypes can provide additional writer information pertaining to their styles of writing and their identities. This paper utilizes a character prototype approach to establish evidence that knowledge of the alphabet offers additional clues which help in the writer identification process. This paper then introduces an alphabet information coefficient (AIC) to better exploit such alphabet knowledge for writer identification. Our experiments showed an increase in writer identification accuracy from 66.0 to 87.0% on a database of 200 reference writers when alphabet knowledge was used. Experiments related to the reduction in dimensionality of the writer identification system are also reported. Our results show that the discriminative power of the alphabet can be used to reduce the complexity while maintaining the same level of performance for the writer identification system.  相似文献
4.
Flowcharts are considered in this work as a specific 2D handwritten language where the basic strokes are the terminal symbols of a graphical language governed by a 2D grammar. In this way, they can be regarded as structured objects, and we propose to use a MRF to model them, and to allow assigning a label to each of the strokes. We use structured SVM as learning algorithm, maximizing the margin between true labels and incorrect labels. The model would automatically learn the implicit grammatical information encoded among strokes, which greatly improves the stroke labeling accuracy compared to previous researches that incorporated human prior knowledge of flowchart structure. We further complete the recognition by using grammatical analysis, which finally brings coherence to the whole flowchart recognition by labeling the relations between the detected objects.  相似文献
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The CROHME competitions have helped organize the field of handwritten mathematical expression recognition. This paper presents the evolution of the competition over its first 4 years, and its contributions to handwritten math recognition, and more generally structural pattern recognition research. The competition protocol, evaluation metrics and datasets are presented in detail. Participating systems are analyzed and compared in terms of the central mathematical expression recognition tasks: (1) symbol segmentation, (2) classification of individual symbols, (3) symbol relationships and (4) structural analysis (parsing). The competition led to the development of label graphs, which allow recognition results with conflicting segmentations to be directly compared and quantified using Hamming distances. We introduce structure confusion histograms that provide frequencies for incorrect subgraphs corresponding to ground-truth label subgraphs of a given size and present structure confusion histograms for symbol bigrams (two symbols with a relationship) for CROHME 2014 systems. We provide a novel analysis combining results from competing systems at the level of individual strokes and stroke pairs; this virtual merging of system outputs allows us to more closely examine limitations for current state-of-the-art systems. Datasets along with evaluation and visualization tools produced for the competition are publicly available.  相似文献
6.
Today, there is an increasing demand of efficient archival and retrieval methods for online handwritten data. For such tasks, text categorization is of particular interest. The textual data available in online documents can be extracted through online handwriting recognition; however, this process produces errors in the resulting text. This work reports experiments on the categorization of online handwritten documents based on their textual contents. We analyze the effect of word recognition errors on the categorization performances, by comparing the performances of a categorization system with the texts obtained through online handwriting recognition and the same texts available as ground truth. Two well-known categorization algorithms (kNN and SVM) are compared in this work. A subset of the Reuters-21578 corpus consisting of more than 2,000 handwritten documents has been collected for this study. Results show that classification rate loss is not significant, and precision loss is only significant for recall values of 60–80% depending on the noise levels.  相似文献
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This paper proposes an automatic text-independent writer identification framework that integrates an industrial handwriting recognition system, which is used to perform an automatic segmentation of an online handwritten document at the character level. Subsequently, a fuzzy c-means approach is adopted to estimate statistical distributions of character prototypes on an alphabet basis. These distributions model the unique handwriting styles of the writers. The proposed system attained an accuracy of 99.2% when retrieved from a database of 120 writers. The only limitation is that a minimum length of text needs to be present in the document in order for sufficient accuracy to be achieved. We have found that this minimum length of text is about 160 characters or approximately equivalent to 3 lines of text. In addition, the discriminative power of different alphabets on the accuracy is also reported.  相似文献
8.
In order to facilitate sketch recognition, most online existing works assume that people will not start to draw a new symbol before the current one has been finished. We propose in this paper a method that relaxes this constraint. The proposed methodology relies on a two-dimensional dynamic programming (2D-DP) technique allowing symbol hypothesis generation, which can correctly segment and recognize interspersed symbols. In addition, as discriminative classifiers usually have limited capability to reject outliers, some domain specific knowledge is included to circumvent those errors due to untrained patterns corresponding to erroneous segmentation hypotheses. With a point-level measurement, the experiment shows that the proposed novel approach is able to achieve an accuracy of more than 90 percent.  相似文献
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