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1.
Choosing Multiple Parameters for Support Vector Machines   总被引:133,自引:0,他引:133  
The problem of automatically tuning multiple parameters for pattern recognition Support Vector Machines (SVMs) is considered. This is done by minimizing some estimates of the generalization error of SVMs using a gradient descent algorithm over the set of parameters. Usual methods for choosing parameters, based on exhaustive search become intractable as soon as the number of parameters exceeds two. Some experimental results assess the feasibility of our approach for a large number of parameters (more than 100) and demonstrate an improvement of generalization performance.  相似文献
2.
Ant algorithms and stigmergy   总被引:125,自引:0,他引:125  
Ant colonies, and more generally social insect societies, are distributed systems that, in spite of the simplicity of their individuals, present a highly structured social organization. As a result of this organization, ant colonies can accomplish complex tasks that in some cases far exceed the individual capacities of a single ant. The study of ant colonies behavior and of their self-organizing capacities is interesting for computer scientists because it provides models of distributed organization which are useful to solve difficult optimization and distributed control problems. In this paper we overview some models derived from the observation of real ants, emphasizing the role played by stigmergy as distributed communication paradigm, and we show how these models have inspired a number of novel algorithms for the solution of distributed optimization and distributed control problems.  相似文献
3.
植物生长建模与可视化——回顾与展望   总被引:99,自引:0,他引:99       下载免费PDF全文
回顾了植物生长的建模与可视化研究.为了加深对不同模型的目的、内涵与局限性的 理解,该文对植物生长模型进行了分类.在植物生长机研究中,对目前常见的分形方法、随机过 程、人工智能等建模方法的特点进行了比较分析.分别介绍了植物仿真与可视化方面的研究进 展及其相关技术,以及植物生长软件的发展状况.最后,总结了该领域研究中存在的主要问题, 并讨论了未来研究与应用方面的发展趋向及其前景.  相似文献
4.
A theory of self-calibration of a moving camera   总被引:77,自引:0,他引:77  
There is a close connection between the calibration of a single camera and the epipolar transformation obtained when the camera undergoes a displacement. The epipolar transformation imposes two algebraic constraints on the camera calibration. If two epipolar transformations, arising from different camera displacements, are available then the compatible camera calibrations are parameterized by an algebraic curve of genus four. The curve can be represented either by a space curve of degree seven contained in the intersection of two cubic surfaces, or by a curve of degree six in the dual of the image plane. The curve in the dual plane has one singular point of order three and three singular points of order two.If three epipolar transformations are available, then two curves of degree six can be obtained in the dual plane such that one of the real intersections of the two yields the correct camera calibration. The two curves have a common singular point of order three.Experimental results are given to demonstrate the feasibility of camera calibration based on the epipolar transformation. The real intersections of the two dual curves are found by locating the zeros of a function defined on the interval [0, 2]. The intersection yielding the correct camera calibration is picked out by referring back to the three epipolar transformations.  相似文献
5.
Evaluation of Interest Point Detectors   总被引:63,自引:0,他引:63  
Many different low-level feature detectors exist and it is widely agreed that the evaluation of detectors is important. In this paper we introduce two evaluation criteria for interest points' repeatability rate and information content. Repeatability rate evaluates the geometric stability under different transformations. Information content measures the distinctiveness of features. Different interest point detectors are compared using these two criteria. We determine which detector gives the best results and show that it satisfies the criteria well.  相似文献
6.
7.
Determining the Epipolar Geometry and its Uncertainty: A Review   总被引:47,自引:0,他引:47  
Two images of a single scene/object are related by the epipolar geometry, which can be described by a 3×3 singular matrix called the essential matrix if images' internal parameters are known, or the fundamental matrix otherwise. It captures all geometric information contained in two images, and its determination is very important in many applications such as scene modeling and vehicle navigation. This paper gives an introduction to the epipolar geometry, and provides a complete review of the current techniques for estimating the fundamental matrix and its uncertainty. A well-founded measure is proposed to compare these techniques. Projective reconstruction is also reviewed. The software which we have developed for this review is available on the Internet.  相似文献
8.
Using multi-agent architecture in FMS for dynamic scheduling   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
The proposed scheduling strategy is based on a multi-agent architecture. Each agent of this architecture is dedicated to a work centre (i.e. a set of resources of the manufacturing system); it selects locally and dynamically the most suitable dispatching rules. Depending on local and global considerations, a new selection is carried out each time a predefined event occurs (for example, a machine becomes available, or a machine breaks down). The selection depends on: (1) primary and secondary performance objectives, (2) the operating conditions, and (3) an analysis of the system state, which aims to detect particular symptoms from the values of certain system variables. We explain how the scheduling strategy is shared out between agents, how each agent performs a local dynamic scheduling by selecting an adequate dispatching rule, and how agents can coordinate their actions to perform a global dynamic scheduling of the manufacturing system. Each agent can be implemented through object-oriented formalisms. The selection method is improved through the optimization of the numerical thresholds used in the detection of symptoms. This approach is compared with the use of SPT, SIX, MOD, CEXSPT and CR/SPT on a jobshop problem, already used in other research works. The results indicate significant improvements.  相似文献
9.
Iterative point matching for registration of free-form curves and surfaces   总被引:30,自引:0,他引:30  
A heuristic method has been developed for registering two sets of 3-D curves obtained by using an edge-based stereo system, or two dense 3-D maps obtained by using a correlation-based stereo system. Geometric matching in general is a difficult unsolved problem in computer vision. Fortunately, in many practical applications, some a priori knowledge exists which considerably simplifies the problem. In visual navigation, for example, the motion between successive positions is usually approximately known. From this initial estimate, our algorithm computes observer motion with very good precision, which is required for environment modeling (e.g., building a Digital Elevation Map). Objects are represented by a set of 3-D points, which are considered as the samples of a surface. No constraint is imposed on the form of the objects. The proposed algorithm is based on iteratively matching points in one set to the closest points in the other. A statistical method based on the distance distribution is used to deal with outliers, occlusion, appearance and disappearance, which allows us to do subset-subset matching. A least-squares technique is used to estimate 3-D motion from the point correspondences, which reduces the average distance between points in the two sets. Both synthetic and real data have been used to test the algorithm, and the results show that it is efficient and robust, and yields an accurate motion estimate.  相似文献
10.
A Comparison of Affine Region Detectors   总被引:25,自引:0,他引:25  
The paper gives a snapshot of the state of the art in affine covariant region detectors, and compares their performance on a set of test images under varying imaging conditions. Six types of detectors are included: detectors based on affine normalization around Harris (Mikolajczyk and Schmid, 2002; Schaffalitzky and Zisserman, 2002) and Hessian points (Mikolajczyk and Schmid, 2002), a detector of ‘maximally stable extremal regions', proposed by Matas et al. (2002); an edge-based region detector (Tuytelaars and Van Gool, 1999) and a detector based on intensity extrema (Tuytelaars and Van Gool, 2000), and a detector of ‘salient regions', proposed by Kadir, Zisserman and Brady (2004). The performance is measured against changes in viewpoint, scale, illumination, defocus and image compression. The objective of this paper is also to establish a reference test set of images and performance software, so that future detectors can be evaluated in the same framework. First online version published in October, 2005  相似文献
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