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排序方式: 共有481条查询结果,搜索用时 249 毫秒
1.
Ant algorithms and stigmergy   总被引:125,自引:0,他引:125  
Ant colonies, and more generally social insect societies, are distributed systems that, in spite of the simplicity of their individuals, present a highly structured social organization. As a result of this organization, ant colonies can accomplish complex tasks that in some cases far exceed the individual capacities of a single ant. The study of ant colonies behavior and of their self-organizing capacities is interesting for computer scientists because it provides models of distributed organization which are useful to solve difficult optimization and distributed control problems. In this paper we overview some models derived from the observation of real ants, emphasizing the role played by stigmergy as distributed communication paradigm, and we show how these models have inspired a number of novel algorithms for the solution of distributed optimization and distributed control problems.  相似文献
2.
Ranking fuzzy numbers in the setting of possibility theory   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
The arithmetic manipulation of fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals is now well understood. Equally important for application purposes is the problem of ranking fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals, which is addressed in this paper. A complete set of comparison indices is proposed in the framework of Zadeh's possibility theory. It is shown that generally four indices enable one to completely describe the respective locations of two fuzzy numbers. Moreover, this approach is related to previous ones, and its possible extension to the ranking of n fuzzy numbers is discussed at length. Finally, it is shown that all the information necessary and sufficient to characterize the respective locations of two fuzzy numbers can be recovered from the knowledge of their mutual compatibilities.  相似文献
3.
This paper compares the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent impervious surface as indicators of surface urban heat island effects in Landsat imagery by investigating the relationships between the land surface temperature (LST), percent impervious surface area (%ISA), and the NDVI. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were used to estimate the LST from four different seasons for the Twin Cities, Minnesota, metropolitan area. A map of percent impervious surface with a standard error of 7.95% was generated using a normalized spectral mixture analysis of July 2002 Landsat TM imagery. Our analysis indicates there is a strong linear relationship between LST and percent impervious surface for all seasons, whereas the relationship between LST and NDVI is much less strong and varies by season. This result suggests percent impervious surface provides a complementary metric to the traditionally applied NDVI for analyzing LST quantitatively over the seasons for surface urban heat island studies using thermal infrared remote sensing in an urbanized environment.  相似文献
4.
The theory of evidence proposed by G. Shafer is gaining more and more acceptance in the field of artificial intelligence, for the purpose of managing uncertainty in knowledge bases. One of the crucial problems is combining uncertain pieces of evidence stemming from several sources, whether rules or physical sensors. This paper examines the framework of belief functions in terms of expressive power for knowledge representation. It is recalled that probability theory and Zadeh's theory of possibility are mathematically encompassed by the theory of evidence, as far as the evaluation of belief is concerned. Empirical and axiomatic foundations of belief functions and possibility measures are investigated. Then the general problem of combining uncertain evidence is addressed, with focus on Dempster rule of combination. It is pointed out that this rule is not very well adapted to the pooling of conflicting information. Alternative rules are proposed to cope with this problem and deal with specific cases such as nonreliable sources, nonexhaustive sources, inconsistent sources, and dependent sources. It is also indicated that combination rules issued from fuzzy set and possibility theory look more flexible than Dempster rule because many variants exist, and their numerical stability seems to be better.  相似文献
5.
In classical Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) knowledge is embedded in a set of hard constraints, each one restricting the possible values of a set of variables. However constraints in real world problems are seldom hard, and CSP's are often idealizations that do not account for the preference among feasible solutions. Moreover some constraints may have priority over others. Lastly, constraints may involve uncertain parameters. This paper advocates the use of fuzzy sets and possibility theory as a realistic approach for the representation of these three aspects. Fuzzy constraints encompass both preference relations among possible instantiations and priorities among constraints. In a Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Problem (FCSP), a constraint is satisfied to a degree (rather than satisfied or not satisfied) and the acceptability of a potential solution becomes a gradual notion. Even if the FCSP is partially inconsistent, best instantiations are provided owing to the relaxation of some constraints. Fuzzy constraints are thus flexible. CSP notions of consistency and k-consistency can be extended to this framework and the classical algorithms used in CSP resolution (e.g., tree search and filtering) can be adapted without losing much of their efficiency. Most classical theoretical results remain applicable to FCSPs. In the paper, various types of constraints are modelled in the same framework. The handling of uncertain parameters is carried out in the same setting because possibility theory can account for both preference and uncertainty. The presence of uncertain parameters leads to ill-defined CSPs, where the set of constraints which defines the problem is not precisely known.  相似文献
6.
This paper reviews a number of recently available techniques in content analysis of visual media and their application to the indexing, retrieval, abstracting, relevance assessment, interactive perception, annotation and re-use of visual documents.This work was performed while this author was with Institute of Systems Science, Singapore.  相似文献
7.
We introduce a new paradigm, the differential invariant signature curve or manifold, for the invariant recognition of visual objects. A general theorem of É. Cartan implies that two curves are related by a group transformation if and only if their signature curves are identical. The important examples of the Euclidean and equi-affine groups are discussed in detail. Secondly, we show how a new approach to the numerical approximation of differential invariants, based on suitable combination of joint invariants of the underlying group action, allows one to numerically compute differential invariant signatures in a fully group-invariant manner. Applications to a variety of fundamental issues in vision, including detection of symmetries, visual tracking, and reconstruction of occlusions, are discussed.  相似文献
8.
A new way to represent the relative position between areal objects   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
The fuzzy qualitative evaluation of directional spatial relationships (such as “to the right of”, “to the south of...”) between areal objects often relies on the computation of a histogram of angles, which is considered to provide a good representation of the relative position of an object with regard to another. In this paper, the notion of the histogram of forces is introduced. It generalizes and may supersede the histogram of angles. The objects (2D entities) are handled as longitudinal sections (1D entities), not as points (OD entities). It is thus possible to fully benefit from the power of integral calculus and, so, ensure rapid processing of raster data, as well as of vector data, explicitly considering both angular and metric information  相似文献
9.
High-Quality Adaptive Soft Shadow Mapping   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
10.
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