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1.
Ant algorithms and stigmergy   总被引:125,自引:0,他引:125  
Ant colonies, and more generally social insect societies, are distributed systems that, in spite of the simplicity of their individuals, present a highly structured social organization. As a result of this organization, ant colonies can accomplish complex tasks that in some cases far exceed the individual capacities of a single ant. The study of ant colonies behavior and of their self-organizing capacities is interesting for computer scientists because it provides models of distributed organization which are useful to solve difficult optimization and distributed control problems. In this paper we overview some models derived from the observation of real ants, emphasizing the role played by stigmergy as distributed communication paradigm, and we show how these models have inspired a number of novel algorithms for the solution of distributed optimization and distributed control problems.  相似文献
2.
Ranking fuzzy numbers in the setting of possibility theory   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
The arithmetic manipulation of fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals is now well understood. Equally important for application purposes is the problem of ranking fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals, which is addressed in this paper. A complete set of comparison indices is proposed in the framework of Zadeh's possibility theory. It is shown that generally four indices enable one to completely describe the respective locations of two fuzzy numbers. Moreover, this approach is related to previous ones, and its possible extension to the ranking of n fuzzy numbers is discussed at length. Finally, it is shown that all the information necessary and sufficient to characterize the respective locations of two fuzzy numbers can be recovered from the knowledge of their mutual compatibilities.  相似文献
3.
The theory of evidence proposed by G. Shafer is gaining more and more acceptance in the field of artificial intelligence, for the purpose of managing uncertainty in knowledge bases. One of the crucial problems is combining uncertain pieces of evidence stemming from several sources, whether rules or physical sensors. This paper examines the framework of belief functions in terms of expressive power for knowledge representation. It is recalled that probability theory and Zadeh's theory of possibility are mathematically encompassed by the theory of evidence, as far as the evaluation of belief is concerned. Empirical and axiomatic foundations of belief functions and possibility measures are investigated. Then the general problem of combining uncertain evidence is addressed, with focus on Dempster rule of combination. It is pointed out that this rule is not very well adapted to the pooling of conflicting information. Alternative rules are proposed to cope with this problem and deal with specific cases such as nonreliable sources, nonexhaustive sources, inconsistent sources, and dependent sources. It is also indicated that combination rules issued from fuzzy set and possibility theory look more flexible than Dempster rule because many variants exist, and their numerical stability seems to be better.  相似文献
4.
Construction and stepwise refinement of dependability models   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
This paper presents a stepwise approach for dependability modeling, based on generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPNs). The first-step model called functional-level model, is built based on the system’s functional specifications and then completed by the structural model as soon as the system’s architecture is known. It can then be refined according to three complementary aspects: component decomposition, state and event fine-tuning and distribution adjustment to take into account increasing event rates. We define specific rules to make the successive transformations as easy and systematic as possible. This approach allows the various dependencies to be taken into account at the right level of abstraction: functional dependency, structural dependency and those induced by non-exponential distributions. A part of the approach is applied to an instrumentation and control (I&C) system in power plants.  相似文献
5.
In classical Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) knowledge is embedded in a set of hard constraints, each one restricting the possible values of a set of variables. However constraints in real world problems are seldom hard, and CSP's are often idealizations that do not account for the preference among feasible solutions. Moreover some constraints may have priority over others. Lastly, constraints may involve uncertain parameters. This paper advocates the use of fuzzy sets and possibility theory as a realistic approach for the representation of these three aspects. Fuzzy constraints encompass both preference relations among possible instantiations and priorities among constraints. In a Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Problem (FCSP), a constraint is satisfied to a degree (rather than satisfied or not satisfied) and the acceptability of a potential solution becomes a gradual notion. Even if the FCSP is partially inconsistent, best instantiations are provided owing to the relaxation of some constraints. Fuzzy constraints are thus flexible. CSP notions of consistency and k-consistency can be extended to this framework and the classical algorithms used in CSP resolution (e.g., tree search and filtering) can be adapted without losing much of their efficiency. Most classical theoretical results remain applicable to FCSPs. In the paper, various types of constraints are modelled in the same framework. The handling of uncertain parameters is carried out in the same setting because possibility theory can account for both preference and uncertainty. The presence of uncertain parameters leads to ill-defined CSPs, where the set of constraints which defines the problem is not precisely known.  相似文献
6.
In this paper the possibility of predicting salt concentrations in soils from measured reflectance spectra is studied using partial least squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural network (ANN). Performance of these two adaptive methods has been compared in order to examine linear and non-linear relationship between soil reflectance and salt concentration.Experiment-, field- and image-scale data sets were prepared consisting of soil EC measurements (dependent variable) and their corresponding reflectance spectra (independent variables). For each data set, PLSR and ANN predictive models of soil salinity were developed based on soil reflectance data. The predictive accuracies of PLSR and ANN models were assessed against independent validation data sets not included in the calibration or training phase.The results of PLSR analyses suggest that an accurate to good prediction of EC can be made based on models developed from experiment-scale data (R2 > 0.81 and RPD (ratio of prediction to deviation) > 2.1) for soil samples salinized by bischofite and epsomite minerals. For field-scale data sets, the PLSR predictive models provided approximate quantitative EC estimations (R2 = 0.8 and RPD = 2.2) for grids 1 and 6 and poor estimations for grids 2, 3, 4 and 5. The salinity predictions from image-scale data sets by PLSR models were very reliable to good (R2 between 0.86 and 0.94 and RPD values between 2.6 and 4.1) except for sub-image 2 (R2 = 0.61 and RPD = 1.2).The ANN models from experiment-scale data set revealed similar network performances for training, validation and test data sets indicating a good network generalization for samples salinized by bischofite and epsomite minerals. The RPD and the R2 between reference measurements and ANN outputs of theses models suggest an accurate to good prediction of soil salinity (R2 > 0.92 and RPD > 2.3). For the field-scale data set, prediction accuracy is relatively poor (0.69 > R2 > 0.42). The ANN predictive models estimating soil salinity from image-scale data sets indicate a good prediction (R2 > 0.86 and RPD > 2.5) except for sub-image 2 (R2 = 0.6 and RPD = 1.2).The results of this study show that both methods have a great potential for estimating and mapping soil salinity. Performance indexes from both methods suggest large similarity between the two approaches with PLSR advantages. This indicates that the relation between soil salinity and soil reflectance can be approximated by a linear function.  相似文献
7.
8.
Most Web search engines use the content of the Web documents and their link structures to assess the relevance of the document to the user’s query. With the growth of the information available on the web, it becomes difficult for such Web search engines to satisfy the user information need expressed by few keywords. First, personalized information retrieval is a promising way to resolve this problem by modeling the user profile by his general interests and then integrating it in a personalized document ranking model. In this paper, we present a personalized search approach that involves a graph-based representation of the user profile. The user profile refers to the user interest in a specific search session defined as a sequence of related queries. It is built by means of score propagation that allows activating a set of semantically related concepts of reference ontology, namely the ODP. The user profile is maintained across related search activities using a graph-based merging strategy. For the purpose of detecting related search activities, we define a session boundary recognition mechanism based on the Kendall rank correlation measure that tracks changes in the dominant concepts held by the user profile relatively to a new submitted query. Personalization is performed by re-ranking the search results of related queries using the user profile. Our experimental evaluation is carried out using the HARD 2003 TREC collection and showed that our session boundary recognition mechanism based on the Kendall measure provides a significant precision comparatively to other non-ranking based measures like the cosine and the WebJaccard similarity measures. Moreover, results proved that the graph-based search personalization is effective for improving the search accuracy.  相似文献
9.
Magnetic microactuators based on polymer magnets   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Integrated permanent magnet microactuators have been fabricated using micromachined polymer magnets. The hard magnetic material utilized is a polymer composite, consisting of magnetically hard ceramic ferrite powder imbedded in a commercial epoxy resin to a volume loading of 80%. The magnets have the form of thin disks approximately 4 mm in diameter and 90 μm in thickness. These disks have been magnetized in the thickness direction, and even in this geometrically unfavorable direction showed typical permanent magnet behavior with an intrinsic coercivity Hci of 4000 Oe (320 kA/m) and a residual induction Br of 600 Gauss (60 mT). Cantilever beam-type magnetic actuators carrying a screen-printed disk magnet on their free ends have been fabricated on an epoxy board. A planar coil on the opposite side of the substrate is used to drive the beams vertically. The actuators exhibit hard magnetic behavior allowing both attraction and repulsion by reversing the current direction. Static and dynamic testing of the magnetic actuators have been performed. The experimental data are compared with theoretical results obtained from both finite element simulations and analytical models. Good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment  相似文献
10.
This paper reviews a number of recently available techniques in content analysis of visual media and their application to the indexing, retrieval, abstracting, relevance assessment, interactive perception, annotation and re-use of visual documents.This work was performed while this author was with Institute of Systems Science, Singapore.  相似文献
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