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1.
A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines for Pattern Recognition   总被引:661,自引:0,他引:661  
The tutorial starts with an overview of the concepts of VC dimension and structural risk minimization. We then describe linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for separable and non-separable data, working through a non-trivial example in detail. We describe a mechanical analogy, and discuss when SVM solutions are unique and when they are global. We describe how support vector training can be practically implemented, and discuss in detail the kernel mapping technique which is used to construct SVM solutions which are nonlinear in the data. We show how Support Vector machines can have very large (even infinite) VC dimension by computing the VC dimension for homogeneous polynomial and Gaussian radial basis function kernels. While very high VC dimension would normally bode ill for generalization performance, and while at present there exists no theory which shows that good generalization performance is guaranteed for SVMs, there are several arguments which support the observed high accuracy of SVMs, which we review. Results of some experiments which were inspired by these arguments are also presented. We give numerous examples and proofs of most of the key theorems. There is new material, and I hope that the reader will find that even old material is cast in a fresh light.  相似文献
2.
Support-Vector Networks   总被引:541,自引:0,他引:541  
Thesupport-vector network is a new learning machine for two-group classification problems. The machine conceptually implements the following idea: input vectors are non-linearly mapped to a very high-dimension feature space. In this feature space a linear decision surface is constructed. Special properties of the decision surface ensures high generalization ability of the learning machine. The idea behind the support-vector network was previously implemented for the restricted case where the training data can be separated without errors. We here extend this result to non-separable training data.High generalization ability of support-vector networks utilizing polynomial input transformations is demonstrated. We also compare the performance of the support-vector network to various classical learning algorithms that all took part in a benchmark study of Optical Character Recognition.  相似文献
3.
Choosing Multiple Parameters for Support Vector Machines   总被引:133,自引:0,他引:133  
The problem of automatically tuning multiple parameters for pattern recognition Support Vector Machines (SVMs) is considered. This is done by minimizing some estimates of the generalization error of SVMs using a gradient descent algorithm over the set of parameters. Usual methods for choosing parameters, based on exhaustive search become intractable as soon as the number of parameters exceeds two. Some experimental results assess the feasibility of our approach for a large number of parameters (more than 100) and demonstrate an improvement of generalization performance.  相似文献
4.
A Roadmap of Agent Research and Development   总被引:118,自引:0,他引:118  
This paper provides an overview of research and development activities in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. It aims to identify key concepts and applications, and to indicate how they relate to one-another. Some historical context to the field of agent-based computing is given, and contemporary research directions are presented. Finally, a range of open issues and future challenges are highlighted.  相似文献
5.
Architecture for an artificial immune system   总被引:87,自引:0,他引:87  
An artificial immune system (ARTIS) is described which incorporates many properties of natural immune systems, including diversity, distributed computation, error tolerance, dynamic learning and adaptation, and self-monitoring. ARTIS is a general framework for a distributed adaptive system and could, in principle, be applied to many domains. In this paper, ARTIS is applied to computer security in the form of a network intrusion detection system called LISYS. LISYS is described and shown to be effective at detecting intrusions, while maintaining low false positive rates. Finally, similarities and differences between ARTIS and Holland's classifier systems are discussed.  相似文献
6.
A Taxonomy and Evaluation of Dense Two-Frame Stereo Correspondence Algorithms   总被引:83,自引:8,他引:75  
Stereo matching is one of the most active research areas in computer vision. While a large number of algorithms for stereo correspondence have been developed, relatively little work has been done on characterizing their performance. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of dense, two-frame stereo methods. Our taxonomy is designed to assess the different components and design decisions made in individual stereo algorithms. Using this taxonomy, we compare existing stereo methods and present experiments evaluating the performance of many different variants. In order to establish a common software platform and a collection of data sets for easy evaluation, we have designed a stand-alone, flexible C++ implementation that enables the evaluation of individual components and that can easily be extended to include new algorithms. We have also produced several new multi-frame stereo data sets with ground truth and are making both the code and data sets available on the Web. Finally, we include a comparative evaluation of a large set of today's best-performing stereo algorithms.  相似文献
7.
Recursively generated B-spline surfaces on arbitrary topological meshes   总被引:82,自引:0,他引:82  
This paper describes a method for recursively generating surfaces that approximate points lying-on a mesh of arbitrary topology. The method is presented as a generalization of a recursive bicubic B-spline patch subdivision algorithm. For rectangular control-point meshes, the method generates a standard B-spline surface. For non-rectangular meshes, it generates surfaces that are shown to reduce to a standard B-spline surface except at a small number of points, called extraordinary points. Therefore, everywhere except at these points the surface is continuous in tangent and curvature. At the extraordinary points, the pictures of the surface indicate that the surface is at least continuous in tangent, but no proof of continuity is given. A similar algorithm for biquadratic B-splines is also presented.  相似文献
8.
QoS Guided Min-Min Heuristic for Grid Task Scheduling   总被引:71,自引:1,他引:70       下载免费PDF全文
Task scheduling is an integrated component of computing.With the emergence of Grid and ubiquitous computing,new challenges appear in task scheduling based on properties such as security,quality of service,and lack of central control within distributed administrative domains.A Grid task scheduling framework must be able to deal with these issues.One of the goals of Grid task scheduling is to achivev high system throughput while matching applications with the available computing resources.This matching of resources in a non-deterministically shared heterogeneous environment leads to concerns over Quality of Service (QoS).In this paper a novel QoS guided task scheduling algorithm for Grid computing is introduced.The proposed novel algorithm is based on a general adaptive scheduling heuristics that includes QoS guidance.The algorithm is evaluated within a simulated Grid environment.The experimental results show that the nwe QoS guided Min-Min heuristic can lead to significant performance gain for a variety of applications.The approach is compared with others based on the quality of the prediction formulated by inaccurate information.  相似文献
9.
Gene Selection for Cancer Classification using Support Vector Machines   总被引:71,自引:0,他引:71  
DNA micro-arrays now permit scientists to screen thousands of genes simultaneously and determine whether those genes are active, hyperactive or silent in normal or cancerous tissue. Because these new micro-array devices generate bewildering amounts of raw data, new analytical methods must be developed to sort out whether cancer tissues have distinctive signatures of gene expression over normal tissues or other types of cancer tissues.In this paper, we address the problem of selection of a small subset of genes from broad patterns of gene expression data, recorded on DNA micro-arrays. Using available training examples from cancer and normal patients, we build a classifier suitable for genetic diagnosis, as well as drug discovery. Previous attempts to address this problem select genes with correlation techniques. We propose a new method of gene selection utilizing Support Vector Machine methods based on Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE). We demonstrate experimentally that the genes selected by our techniques yield better classification performance and are biologically relevant to cancer.In contrast with the baseline method, our method eliminates gene redundancy automatically and yields better and more compact gene subsets. In patients with leukemia our method discovered 2 genes that yield zero leave-one-out error, while 64 genes are necessary for the baseline method to get the best result (one leave-one-out error). In the colon cancer database, using only 4 genes our method is 98% accurate, while the baseline method is only 86% accurate.  相似文献
10.
A survey of approaches to automatic schema matching   总被引:69,自引:0,他引:69  
Schema matching is a basic problem in many database application domains, such as data integration, E-business, data warehousing, and semantic query processing. In current implementations, schema matching is typically performed manually, which has significant limitations. On the other hand, previous research papers have proposed many techniques to achieve a partial automation of the match operation for specific application domains. We present a taxonomy that covers many of these existing approaches, and we describe the approaches in some detail. In particular, we distinguish between schema-level and instance-level, element-level and structure-level, and language-based and constraint-based matchers. Based on our classification we review some previous match implementations thereby indicating which part of the solution space they cover. We intend our taxonomy and review of past work to be useful when comparing different approaches to schema matching, when developing a new match algorithm, and when implementing a schema matching component. Received: 5 February 2001 / Accepted: 6 September 2001 Published online: 21 November 2001  相似文献
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