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1.
The Interpretation of Line Drawings with Contrast Failure and Shadows   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
In line drawings derived from real images, lines may be missing due to contrast failure and objects with curved surfaces may cast shadows from multiple light sources.This paper shows that it is the presence of shadows, rather than contrast failure, that renders the line drawing labelling problem NP-complete. However, shadows are a valuable visual cue, since their presence is formally shown to reduce the average ambiguity of drawings. This is especially true when constraints concerning shadow formation are employed to differentiate shadow and non-shadow lines.The extended junction constraint, concerning straight lines colinear with junctions, compensates the loss of information caused by contrast failure. In fact, we observe the contrast failure paradox: a drawing is sometimes less ambiguous when lines are partly missing due to contrast failure.It is known that the coplanarity of sets of object vertices can be deduced from the presence of straight lines in the drawing. This paper shows that these coplanarity constraints are robust to the presence of contrast failure.  相似文献
2.
Exploratory Projection Pursuit (EPP) methods have been developed thirty years ago in the context of exploratory analysis of large data sets. These methods consist in looking for low-dimensional projections that reveal some interesting structure existing in the data set but not visible in high dimension. Each projection is associated with a real valued index which optima correspond to valuable projections. Several EPP indices have been proposed in the statistics literature but the main problem lies in their optimization. In the present paper, we propose to apply Genetic Algorithms (GA) and recent Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to the optimization of several projection pursuit indices. We explain how the EPP methods can be implemented in order to become an efficient and powerful tool for the statistician. We illustrate our proposal on several simulated and real data sets.  相似文献
3.
The machine interpretation of line drawings has applications both in vision and geometric modelling. This paper extends the classic technique of assigning semantic labels to lines subject to junction constraints, by introducing new constraints (often between distant lines). These include generic constraints between lines lying on a path in the drawing as well as preference constraints between the labellings of pairs of junctions lying on parallel lines. Such constraints are essential to avoid an exponential number of legal labellings of drawings of objects with non-trihedral vertices. The strength of these constraints is demonstrated by their ability to identify the unique correct labelling of many drawings of polyhedral objects with tetrahedral vertices. These new constraints also allowed us to deduce a general polyhedral junction constraint for the case when there is no limit on the number of faces which can meet at a junction.  相似文献
4.
The reconstruction of an object from a single 2D projection of a 3D wireframe model is a vision problem with applications in CAD/CAM and computer graphics.We propose an algorithm for the interpretation of wireframe projections based on assigning semantic and numerical depth labels to lines. This method allows us to state necessary and sufficient conditions for the physical realisability of a wireframe projection of a curved object. The presence of linear features provides further constraints on the positions of object vertices. For example, each straight line gives rise to a coplanarity constraint between a set of object vertices.We show that extra information, such as vanishing points, parallel lines or user-entered depth-parity information, is sufficient to uniquely determine the face-circuits in wireframe projections of polyhedra with simple trihedral vertices. In fact, a polyhedron with simple trihedral vertices can be unambiguously reconstructed from its 3D wireframe model.  相似文献
5.
k-consistency operations in constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) render constraints more explicit by solving size-k subproblems and projecting the information thus obtained down to low-order constraints. We generalise this notion of k-consistency to valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSPs) and show that it can be established in polynomial time when penalties lie in a discrete valuation structure.A generic definition of consistency is given which can be tailored to particular applications. As an example, a version of high-order consistency (face consistency) is presented which can be established in low-order polynomial time given certain restrictions on the valuation structure and the form of the constraint graph.  相似文献
6.
Over the past few years there has been considerable progress in methods to systematically analyse the complexity of constraint satisfaction problems with specified constraint types. One very powerful theoretical development in this area links the complexity of a set of constraints to a corresponding set of algebraic operations, known as polymorphisms.In this paper we extend the analysis of complexity to the more general framework of combinatorial optimisation problems expressed using various forms of soft constraints. We launch a systematic investigation of the complexity of these problems by extending the notion of a polymorphism to a more general algebraic operation, which we call a multimorphism. We show that many tractable sets of soft constraints, both established and novel, can be characterised by the presence of particular multimorphisms. We also show that a simple set of NP-hard constraints has very restricted multimorphisms. Finally, we use the notion of multimorphism to give a complete classification of complexity for the Boolean case which extends several earlier classification results for particular special cases.  相似文献
7.
One of the fundamental problems in computer vision is the segmentation of an image into semantically meaningful regions, based only on image characteristics. A single segmentation can be determined using a linear number of evaluations of a uniformity predicate. However, minimising the number of regions is shown to be an NP-complete problem. We also show that the variational approach to segmentation, based on minimising a criterion combining the overall variance of regions and the number of regions, also gives rise to an NP-complete problem.When a library of object models is available, segmenting the image becomes a problem of scene analysis. A sufficient condition for the reconstruction of a 3D scene from a 2D image to be solvable in polynomial time is that the scene contains no cycles of mutually occluding objects and that no range information can be deduced from the image. It is known that relaxing the no cycles condition renders the problem NP-complete. We show that relaxing the no range information condition also produces an NP-complete problem.  相似文献
8.
The measurement of information is potentially as important to an information engineer as the measurement of physical quantities is to a civil or mechanical engineer. This article introduces semantic measures, representing the distance between the meanings of two messages. We demonstrate one possible application by giving a small-scale example in which a semantic measure was used to retrieve information by meaning rather than by word-occurrence. The distance function between the meanings of two messages can be generalized to cover fuzzy meanings. A possible application, the processing of free responses to opinion polls, is described.  相似文献
9.
10.
Finding a solution to a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) is known to be an NP-hard task. Considerable effort has been spent on identifying tractable classes of CSP, in other words, classes of constraint satisfaction problems for which there are polynomial time recognition and resolution algorithms. In this article, we present a relational tractable class of binary CSP. Our key contribution is a new ternary operation that we name mjx. We first characterize mjx-closed relations which leads to an optimal algorithm to recognize such relations. To reduce space and time complexity, we define a new storage technique for these relations which reduces the complexity of establishing a form of strong directional path consistency, the consistency level that solves all instances of the proposed class (and, indeed, of all relational classes closed under a majority polymorphism).  相似文献
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