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排序方式: 共有35条查询结果,搜索用时 171 毫秒
1.
Task-oriented programming of large redundant robot motion   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
Large robots are a new domain of advanced robotics. Examples of their application fields are tasks like operations on large free-form surfaces, especially aircraft cleaning and removing paint from hulls. They are equipped with a programmable robot control comparable to a control system used for industrial robots. However, conventional teach-in methods are not able to manage the complexity of programming large redundant robot operation on free-form geometries. The Fraunhofer IPA has developed an innovative off-line programming system that allows the creation of robot motion programs which satisfy time and energy optimization criteria. This system helps to avoid collisions within the workspace and to fulfill conditions that arise from the robot kinematics and dynamics. This advanced programming system has been successfully used to generate motion programs for the world's largest mobile robot, the aircraft cleaning manipulator SKYWASH. In this context offline programs for eleven different types of aircraft have been developed.  相似文献
2.
加速度约束条件下的非完整移动机器人运动控制   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
曹洋  方帅  徐心和 《控制与决策》2006,21(2):193-196
将移动机器人的运动规划与跟踪控制问题合并在一起,对加速度约束条件下的非完整移动机器人运动控制问题进行研究,提出基于贝塞尔曲线的路径规划方法,以满足机器人的非完整约束.在考虑所受加速度约束的条件下,通过规划机器人状态时问轨线的方法实现了时间最优的轨迹规划.基于控制李亚普诺夫函数推导出了轨迹跟踪的控制律.仿真实验结果表明所提出的算法是有效的.  相似文献
3.
Development and implementation of a NURBS curve motion interpolator   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
This paper deals with the issues of development and implementation of a real-time NURBS interpolator for a six-axis robot. Using an open-architecture controller system as a testbed, a real-time NURBS curve interpolator was developed, implemented and tested. Sample runs were conducted with the resulting trajectories measured in real-time during robot motion. The resulting trajectories are analyzed, discussed and compared with those from a commonly used point-to-point approximation technique. The real-time NURBS curve interpolator's feasibility, advantages and related issues are also discussed.  相似文献
4.
5.
A multisine approach for trajectory optimization based on information gain   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
L.  J.  H. 《Robotics and Autonomous Systems》2003,43(4):231-243
This paper presents a multisine approach for trajectory optimization based on information gain, with distance and orientation sensing to known beacons. It addresses the problem of active sensing, i.e. the selection of a robot motion or sequence of motions, which make the robot arrive in its desired goal configuration (position and orientation) with maximum accuracy, given the available sensor information. The optimal trajectory is parameterized as a linear combination of sinusoidal functions. An appropriate optimality criterion is selected which takes into account various requirements (such as maximum accuracy and minimum time). Several constraints can be formulated, e.g. with respect to collision avoidance. The optimal trajectory is then determined by numerical optimization techniques. The approach is applicable to both nonholonomic and holonomic robots. Its effectiveness is illustrated here for a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot (WMR) in an environment with and without obstacles.  相似文献
6.
Environment adaptation of a new staircase-climbing wheelchair   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
This paper describes the mechanical devices conforming a novel wheelchair prototype capable of climbing staircases. The key feature of the mechanical design is the use of two decoupled mechanisms in each axle, one to negotiate steps, and the other to position the axle with respect to the chair to accommodate the overall slope. This design simplifies the control task substantially. Kinematic models are necessary to describe the behavior of the system and to control the actuated degrees of freedom of the wheelchair to ensure the passenger’s comfort. The choice of a good climbing strategy simplifies the control and decreases the power consumption of the wheelchair. In particular, we demonstrate that if the movement of the wheelchair has the same slope as the racks or the same slope as the terrain that supports the wheel axles (depending on the configuration mechanism), control is easier and power consumption is less. Experimental results are reported which show the behavior of the prototype as it moves over different situations: (a) ascending a single step of different heights using different climbing strategies; and (b) climbing a staircase using an appropriate climbing strategy that simplifies the control and reduces the power consumption of the wheelchair.
R. MoralesEmail:
  相似文献
7.
This paper presents a nonholonomic path planning method, aiming at taking into considerations of curvature constraint, length minimization, and computational demand, for car-like mobile robot based on cubic spirals. The generated path is made up of at most five segments: at most two maximal-curvature cubic spiral segments with zero curvature at both ends in connection with up to three straight line segments. A numerically efficient process is presented to generate a Cartesian shortest path among the family of paths considered for a given pair of start and destination configurations. Our approach is resorted to minimization via linear programming over the sum of length of each path segment of paths synthesized based on minimal locomotion cubic spirals linking start and destination orientations through a selected intermediate orientation. The potential intermediate configurations are not necessarily selected from the symmetric mean circle for non-parallel start and destination orientations. The novelty of the presented path generation method based on cubic spirals is: (i) Practical: the implementation is straightforward so that the generation of feasible paths in an environment free of obstacles is efficient in a few milliseconds; (ii) Flexible: it lends itself to various generalizations: readily applicable to mobile robots capable of forward and backward motion and Dubins’ car (i.e. car with only forward driving capability); well adapted to the incorporation of other constraints like wall-collision avoidance encountered in robot soccer games; straightforward extension to planning a path connecting an ordered sequence of target configurations in simple obstructed environment.  相似文献
8.
In biped robot dynamics, the foot is generally considered rigid. However, in practical cases, there will be a layer of rubber on the sole to act as a shock absorber. Such electrodynamic contact has been studied in the case of industrial robots, but the experience with biped robots is rare. The goal of this paper is to device a trajectory generation method using a genetic algorithm (GA) for an 8 DOF robot that can walk on flat terrain and climb stairs with deformation at the sole. The proposed method uses splines to model each joint angle and needs a single GA layer, which makes it faster and simpler than earlier models. The method incorporates the dynamics of an actual 8 DOF robot to find the most energy optimal gait. A simple control method is proposed that corrects the computed angle required to follow ZMP incorporating the deformation of the sole. Using the control method the computed angle is first corrected and then the trajectory optimized. Energy consumed in three cases were compared: walk on flat ground with no sole deformation, walk with uncorrected deformed soft sole and walk with deformed soft sole with correction of deformation. It is found that the least energy was consumed in the case of soft sole with correction for deformation. This proves the need for deformation correction of soft sole and the usefulness of our proposed method.  相似文献
9.
目标的运动轨迹是跟踪和识别目标行为的重要特征之一,在视觉跟踪等领域得到了广泛的应用.然而,由于轨迹数据具有高维和非线性等特点,因而直接建模目标的运动轨迹比较困难.为此,引入一种称为自编码(autoencoder)的双向深层神经网络,并结合粒子滤波提出一种轨迹跟踪识别算法.首先,自编码网络按照一定的学习规则将高维轨迹嵌人到二维平面上,通过该网络的逆向映射得到轨迹的生成模型,由轨迹生成模型可得到一系列可行性轨迹.跟踪过程中,每时刻粒子滤波器的粒子便从这些可行性轨迹中进行抽样,并利用颜色似然函数对抽取的粒子进行加权以及再抽样从而实现对目标状态的估计,最后在二维平面中利用"最小距离分类器"对跟踪轨迹进行识别.特别地,自编码网络提供了高维轨迹空间和低维嵌套结构的双向映射,有效解决了大多数非线性降维方法(例如局部线性嵌入算法(LLE)和等度规映射(ISOMAP))所不具备的逆向映射问题.跟踪和识别手写数字实验表明所提出的方法能在复杂背景下精确跟踪目标并正确识别目标轨迹.  相似文献
10.
This paper presents a novel investigation of the effectiveness of haptic feedback for designing a class of interconnected multi-body systems such as passive mechanisms. The traditional application of haptic feedback in the design process has been in applications such as parts assembly or mold design. The design of the mechanism discussed in this paper is for applications where the user needs to manipulate the mechanism in order to interact with an environment. The objective of the design is to have the link ratios so that it can allow the user better movement control of the mechanism and thus give a better force amplification when there is a sudden change in the contact reaction force with the application environment. A haptic device is used as a design interface between the designer of such mechanisms and the virtual mechanism model. For this preliminary investigation, we used a four-bar mechanism. In our case study, we choose, as an example, to use the net distance travel of a tool when penetrating inside a model of a deformable surface as the design objective to minimize. The effects on the variation of this distance travelled can then be studied by adjusting some of the key design parameters used in the mechanism. To evaluate our proposed haptic-aided design environment, an informal preliminary user study was conducted, where each subject explored a sampled design space of the mechanism. The results of the user study suggest that the usage of a haptic device in the design of this class of mechanism can expedite the design process.  相似文献
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