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1.
Rough sets   总被引:1295,自引:0,他引:1295  
We investigate in this paper approximate operations on sets, approximate equality of sets, and approximate inclusion of sets. The presented approach may be considered as an alternative to fuzzy sets theory and tolerance theory. Some applications are outlined.  相似文献
2.
Least Squares Support Vector Machine Classifiers   总被引:322,自引:0,他引:322  
In this letter we discuss a least squares version for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Due to equality type constraints in the formulation, the solution follows from solving a set of linear equations, instead of quadratic programming for classical SVM's. The approach is illustrated on a two-spiral benchmark classification problem.  相似文献
3.
Induction of decision trees   总被引:322,自引:2,他引:320  
The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to deal with information that is noisy and/or incomplete. A reported shortcoming of the basic algorithm is discussed and two means of overcoming it are compared. The paper concludes with illustrations of current research directions.  相似文献
4.
Bayesian Network Classifiers   总被引:136,自引:0,他引:136  
Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with state-of-the-art classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the question of whether a classifier with less restrictive assumptions can perform even better. In this paper we evaluate approaches for inducing classifiers from data, based on the theory of learning Bayesian networks. These networks are factored representations of probability distributions that generalize the naive Bayesian classifier and explicitly represent statements about independence. Among these approaches we single out a method we call Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), which outperforms naive Bayes, yet at the same time maintains the computational simplicity (no search involved) and robustness that characterize naive Bayes. We experimentally tested these approaches, using problems from the University of California at Irvine repository, and compared them to C4.5, naive Bayes, and wrapper methods for feature selection.  相似文献
5.
Random Forests   总被引:82,自引:0,他引:82  
Random forests are a combination of tree predictors such that each tree depends on the values of a random vector sampled independently and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest. The generalization error for forests converges a.s. to a limit as the number of trees in the forest becomes large. The generalization error of a forest of tree classifiers depends on the strength of the individual trees in the forest and the correlation between them. Using a random selection of features to split each node yields error rates that compare favorably to Adaboost (Y. Freund & R. Schapire, Machine Learning: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International conference, ***, 148–156), but are more robust with respect to noise. Internal estimates monitor error, strength, and correlation and these are used to show the response to increasing the number of features used in the splitting. Internal estimates are also used to measure variable importance. These ideas are also applicable to regression.  相似文献
6.
决策树的优化算法   总被引:76,自引:1,他引:75       下载免费PDF全文
刘小虎  李 生 《软件学报》1998,9(10):797-800
决策树的优化是决策树学习算法中十分重要的分支.以ID3为基础,提出了改进的优化算法.每当选择一个新的属性时,算法不是仅仅考虑该属性带来的信息增益,而是考虑到选择该属性后继续选择的属性带来的信息增益,即同时考虑树的两层结点.提出的改进算法的时间复杂性与ID3相同,对于逻辑表达式的归纳,改进算法明显优于ID3.  相似文献
7.
Bayesian Networks for Data Mining   总被引:76,自引:0,他引:76  
A Bayesian network is a graphical model that encodesprobabilistic relationships among variables of interest. When used inconjunction with statistical techniques, the graphical model hasseveral advantages for data modeling. One, because the model encodesdependencies among all variables, it readily handles situations wheresome data entries are missing. Two, a Bayesian network can be used tolearn causal relationships, and hence can be used to gain understanding about a problem domain and to predict the consequencesof intervention. Three, because the model has both a causal andprobabilistic semantics, it is an ideal representation for combiningprior knowledge (which often comes in causal form) and data. Four,Bayesian statistical methods in conjunction with Bayesian networksoffer an efficient and principled approach for avoiding theoverfitting of data. In this paper, we discuss methods for constructing Bayesian networks from prior knowledge and summarizeBayesian statistical methods for using data to improve these models.With regard to the latter task, we describe methods for learning boththe parameters and structure of a Bayesian network, includingtechniques for learning with incomplete data. In addition, we relateBayesian-network methods for learning to techniques for supervised andunsupervised learning. We illustrate the graphical-modeling approachusing a real-world case study.  相似文献
8.
基于支持向量机与无监督聚类相结合的中文网页分类器   总被引:74,自引:0,他引:74  
提出了一种将支持向量机与无监督聚类相结合的新分类算法,给出了一种新的网页表示方法并应用于网页分类问题。该算法首先利用无监督聚类分别对训练集中正例和反例聚类,然后挑选一些例子训练SVM并获得SVM分类器,任何网页可以通过比较其与聚类中心的距离决定采用无监督聚类方法或SVM分类器进行分类。该算法充分利用了SVM准确率高与无监督聚类速度快的优点。实验表明它不仅具有较高的训练效率,而且有很高的精确度。  相似文献
9.
自动问答综述   总被引:73,自引:9,他引:64  
自动问答技术是自然语言处理领域中一个非常热门的研究方向 ,它综合运用了各种自然语言处理技术。本文介绍了自动问答技术的发展现状和自动问答系统中常用的技术。自动问答系统一般包括三个主要组成部分 :问题分析、信息检索和答案抽取。本文分别介绍了这三个主要组成部分的主要功能和常用的方法。最后还介绍了自动问答系统的评价问题。  相似文献
10.
Gene Selection for Cancer Classification using Support Vector Machines   总被引:71,自引:0,他引:71  
DNA micro-arrays now permit scientists to screen thousands of genes simultaneously and determine whether those genes are active, hyperactive or silent in normal or cancerous tissue. Because these new micro-array devices generate bewildering amounts of raw data, new analytical methods must be developed to sort out whether cancer tissues have distinctive signatures of gene expression over normal tissues or other types of cancer tissues.In this paper, we address the problem of selection of a small subset of genes from broad patterns of gene expression data, recorded on DNA micro-arrays. Using available training examples from cancer and normal patients, we build a classifier suitable for genetic diagnosis, as well as drug discovery. Previous attempts to address this problem select genes with correlation techniques. We propose a new method of gene selection utilizing Support Vector Machine methods based on Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE). We demonstrate experimentally that the genes selected by our techniques yield better classification performance and are biologically relevant to cancer.In contrast with the baseline method, our method eliminates gene redundancy automatically and yields better and more compact gene subsets. In patients with leukemia our method discovered 2 genes that yield zero leave-one-out error, while 64 genes are necessary for the baseline method to get the best result (one leave-one-out error). In the colon cancer database, using only 4 genes our method is 98% accurate, while the baseline method is only 86% accurate.  相似文献
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