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1.
This paper describes the design of miniature generators capable of converting ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for use in powering intelligent sensor systems. Such a device acts as the power supply of a microsystem which can be used in inaccessible areas where wires can not be practically attached to provide power or transmit sensor data. Two prototypes of miniature generator are described and experimental results presented. Prototype A is based around two magnets coupled to a coil attached to a cantilever; prototype B is based around four magnets.

For prototype A, experimental results are given for its resonant frequency and its open circuit and loaded output as a function of vibration amplitude. For prototype B, experimental results are given for the generator’s Q factor in air and vacuum, its output voltage as a function of vibration amplitude as well as its magnetic field strength. This generator has been tested on a car engine and shown to produce a peak power of 3.9 mW with an average power of 157 μW.  相似文献

2.
无线网络传感器能量收集管理技术   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
电源问题是无线网络传感器中的关键问题.只有提供长期有效的能源才能使网络传感器降低维护运行成本,进一步体现其巨大优势.本文首先以机械振动和光能收集的两种具体方法为例,对无线传感器的能量收集进行介绍;在能量管理中引进先进的电源动态管理技术,对能量实现有效利用,对储存元件-电池储存能量关键技术进行研究;最后对降低电能消耗的几种途径进行探讨.本文对无线网络传感器的能源设计具有重要的理论和应用意义.  相似文献
3.
压电式能量获取装置的研究现状   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
微机电系统(MEMS)将是21世纪最重要的研究领域之一,而微能源器件是MEMS其中一个重要分支,其发展直接关系到MEMS在某些领域中的应用。现针对压电式能源获取装置在国际上的研究进展进行系统的阐述和介绍,以压电效应的本质特征为基础,详细描述了它的结构、原理和应用领域。  相似文献
4.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) offer an attractive solution to many environmental, security, and process monitoring problems. However, one barrier to their fuller adoption is the need to supply electrical power over extended periods of time without the need for dedicated wiring. Energy harvesting provides a potential solution to this problem in many applications. This paper reviews the characteristics and energy requirements of typical sensor network nodes, assesses a range of potential ambient energy sources, and outlines the characteristics of a wide range of energy conversion devices. It then proposes a method to compare these diverse sources and conversion mechanisms in terms of their normalised power density.  相似文献
5.
基于能量采集技术的无线传感网研究进展   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
介绍无线传感网中常用的能量采集技术的原理和工作特点,重点分析在无线传感网中利用太阳能提供能源供应的原理和关键技术。介绍由于使用能量采集技术给无线传感网所带来的硬件与网络协议方面的挑战以及目前的解决方案,最后总结未来可能的研究方向。  相似文献
6.
Energy harvesting devices based on the piezoelectric effect that converts ambient energy to electric energy is a very attractive energy source for remote sensors and embedded devices. Although topology optimization has been applied to the design of piezoelectric transducers, the locations of piezoelectric materials are predefined and only the optimal layout of elastic materials is considered. In this paper, both elastic materials as well as piezoelectric materials are considered for the design of energy harvesting devices under the topology optimization formulation. The objective function for this study is to maximize the energy conversion factor. The sensitivities of both stored strain energy and electrical energy are derived by the adjoint method. Examples of energy harvesting devices are presented and discussed using the proposed method.  相似文献
7.
Double permanent magnet vibration power generator for smart hip prosthesis   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Ever since the first studies about biomedical implantable devices, the problem of how to energize them has stood out as both important and notoriously difficult to solve. In order to extend the lifetime of implants, it is imperative to develop power generators that are autonomous, safe and maintenance-free. Energy harvesting is a natural way of meeting these requirements. First, the energy source is theoretically everlasting, a fact that helps to guarantee the autonomy. Second, the energy is obtained from the environment of the application itself, contributing to its safety. Finally, a properly designed energy harvesting system is very unlikely to ever require maintenance. This paper follows this line and describes an electromagnetic power transducer that harvests electrical energy from the human gait and stores it. An efficient power management module uses the stored energy to energize the telemetric system of a smart hip prosthesis implant, enabling the early detection of loosening, the target application of this work. The system is able to extract a total 1912.5 μJ of usable energy under normal walking conditions.  相似文献
8.
Mechanical energy in the form of low frequency vibrations (1-100 Hz) can be commonly available and this energy type can be advantageously converted to electrical one by exploiting energy harvesting techniques. At the same time, in many applications, the devices that convert low frequency mechanical energy to electrical one should have a small size. An electromechanical power generator is proposed for converting mechanical energy in the form of low-frequency vibrations, available in the measurement environment, into electrical energy. The intended applications for the proposed electromechanical power generator, described in this paper, are for examples mechanical systems with low frequency vibrations (1-100 Hz). The operating principle is based on the relative movement of a planar inductor with respect to permanent magnets. The generator implements a novel configuration of magnets that is proposed and analyzed with the aim to improve the conversion efficiency, increasing the spatial variation of magnetic flux. Furthermore, the generator uses polymeric material as resonators, which have low-frequency mechanical resonances due to the low Young's modulus of the materials by which they are made. The different materials, with which the suspensions for the planar inductor were made, have allowed to compare different behaviors of the resonators: linear and nonlinear. The experimental results have shown, for a linear resonator, a vibration frequency of about 100 Hz with generated powers of about 290 μW and a harvesting effectiveness of 0.5%, while, for the polymeric resonator made by Latex, the vibration frequency is around 40 Hz with a maximum power of 153 μW and a harvesting effectiveness of 3.3%. The proposed configuration can be adopted for its low profile, modularity and low-frequency vibrations in many applications from industrial to medical.  相似文献
9.
一种宽频的磁式压电振动能量采集器   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
基于环境能量采集的压电振动能量采集器为无线传感器和微机电系统的长期供能提供了一种有效解决方案。目前研制的压电式振动能量采集器存在工作频率高,且频带窄的问题。给出了一种通过磁力的引入使其在低频下工作的、宽频的压电振动能量采集器,并搭建了测试系统对器件进行分析测试。在压电悬臂梁上放置永磁铁取代传统的质量块,同时在悬臂梁的上下方也放置不同极性的永磁铁。对压电悬臂梁(长40 mm、宽8mm、厚0.8 mm),在0.5 gn加速度作用下进行试验测试,峰峰电压10 V以上的有效频带为80~100 Hz,与传统无磁铁振动式压电能量采集器相比,有效地拓展了5 Hz的工作频带。  相似文献
10.
基于波浪能获取的多关节仿生机器鱼能源自给系统   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为解决仿生机器鱼水下长期服役的能源瓶颈问题,提出利用波浪能摆动关节来发电的多关节仿生机器 鱼能源自给系统.根据随机波浪理论分析了海浪的频谱特性和获能潜力,设计了利用关节摆动发电的能源获取系 统,并建立该系统的机电模型.最后,通过仿真模拟和单关节摆动发电试验验证了该方法的可行性,为仿生机器鱼 水下长期服役的能源自给系统设计提供了参考.  相似文献
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