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1.
Various control methods have been studied for the natural assistance of human motions by exoskeletal robots, i.e., wearable robots for assisting the human motions. For example, impedance control and compliance control are widely used for controlling interaction forces between a human and a robot. When an accurate measurement of the human muscular force is available (e.g., electromyography), a direct use of the estimated human joint torque is possible in the control of an assistive robot. The human motions in a daily living, however, are so complex that they are constituted by multiple phases, such as walking, sitting, and standing, where the walking can be further categorized into multiple sub-phases. Therefore, a single control method cannot be the best option for all the motion phases; a switch in the control algorithms may be necessary for assisting human movements in multiple motion phases. In this paper, a generalized control framework is proposed to incorporate the various assistive control methods in one general controller structure, which consists of Feedforward Disturbance Compensation Control, Reference Tracking Feedback Control, Reference Tracking Feedforward Control, Model-based Torque Control. The proposed control framework is designed taking into consideration of the linearity of each control algorithm, and thus it enables the continuous and smooth switching of assistive control algorithms, and makes it possible to analyze the stability of the overall control loop. The proposed method is implemented into a lower-limb exoskeleton robot and is verified by experimental results.  相似文献   
2.
ContextMemory safety errors such as buffer overflow vulnerabilities are one of the most serious classes of security threats. Detecting and removing such security errors are important tasks of software testing for improving the quality and reliability of software in practice.ObjectiveThis paper presents a goal-oriented testing approach for effectively and efficiently exploring security vulnerability errors. A goal is a potential safety violation and the testing approach is to automatically generate test inputs to uncover the violation.MethodWe use type inference analysis to diagnose potential safety violations and dynamic symbolic execution to perform test input generation. A major challenge facing dynamic symbolic execution in such application is the combinatorial explosion of the path space. To address this fundamental scalability issue, we employ data dependence analysis to identify a root cause leading to the execution of the goal and propose a path exploration algorithm to guide dynamic symbolic execution for effectively discovering the goal.ResultsTo evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, we conducted experiments against 23 buffer overflow vulnerabilities. We observed a significant improvement of our proposed algorithm over two widely adopted search algorithms. Specifically, our algorithm discovered security vulnerability errors within a matter of a few seconds, whereas the two baseline algorithms failed even after 30 min of testing on a number of test subjects.ConclusionThe experimental results highlight the potential of utilizing data dependence analysis to address the combinatorial path space explosion issue faced by dynamic symbolic execution for effective security testing.  相似文献   
3.
In this work, we discuss a recently proposed approach for supervised dimensionality reduction, the Supervised Distance Preserving Projection (SDPP) and, we investigate its applicability to monitoring material's properties from spectroscopic observations. Motivated by continuity preservation, the SDPP is a linear projection method where the proximity relations between points in the low-dimensional subspace mimic the proximity relations between points in the response space. Such a projection facilitates the design of efficient regression models and it may also uncover useful information for visualisation. An experimental evaluation is conducted to show the performance of the SDPP and compare it with a number of state-of-the-art approaches for unsupervised and supervised dimensionality reduction. The regression step after projection is performed using computationally light models with low maintenance cost like Multiple Linear Regression and Locally Linear Regression with k-NN neighbourhoods. For the evaluation, a benchmark and a full-scale calibration problem are discussed. The case studies pertain the estimation of a number of chemico-physical properties in diesel fuels and in light cycle oils, starting from near-infrared spectra. Based on the experimental results, we found that the SDPP leads to parsimonious projections that can be used to design light and yet accurate estimation models.  相似文献   
4.
This work considers the application of classification algorithms for data-driven fault diagnosis of batch processes. A novel data selection methodology is proposed which enables online classification of detected disturbances without requiring the estimation of unknown (future) process behavior, as is the case in previously reported approaches.The proposed method is benchmarked in two case studies using the Pensim process model of Birol et al. (2002) implemented in RAYMOND. Both a simple k Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) and complex Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) are employed for classification to demonstrate the generic nature of the proposed approach. In addition, the influence of different data pretreatment methods on the classification performance is discussed, together with a motivation for selecting the correct pretreatment steps. Finally, the influence of the number of available training batches is studied.The results demonstrate that a good classification performance can be achieved with the proposed data selection method even with a low number of faulty training batches by exploiting knowledge on the nature of the to-be-diagnosed faults in the data pretreatment. This provides a proof of concept for classification-based batch diagnosis and demonstrates the importance of incorporating process insight in the construction of data-driven process monitoring and diagnosis tools.  相似文献   
5.
Model predictive control (MPC) has been effectively applied in process industries since the 1990s. Models in the form of closed equation sets are normally needed for MPC, but it is often difficult to obtain such formulations for large nonlinear systems. To extend nonlinear MPC (NMPC) application to nonlinear distributed parameter systems (DPS) with unknown dynamics, a data-driven model reduction-based approach is followed. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is first applied off-line to compute a set of basis functions. Then a series of artificial neural networks (ANNs) are trained to effectively compute POD time coefficients. NMPC, using sequential quadratic programming is then applied. The novelty of our methodology lies in the application of POD's highly efficient linear decomposition for the consequent conversion of any distributed multi-dimensional space-state model to a reduced 1-dimensional model, dependent only on time, which can be handled effectively as a black-box through ANNs. Hence we construct a paradigm, which allows the application of NMPC to complex nonlinear high-dimensional systems, even input/output systems, handled by black-box solvers, with significant computational efficiency. This paradigm combines elements of gain scheduling, NMPC, model reduction and ANN for effective control of nonlinear DPS. The stabilization/destabilization of a tubular reactor with recycle is used as an illustrative example to demonstrate the efficiency of our methodology. Case studies with inequality constraints are also presented.  相似文献   
6.
In this work, we discuss the application of multivariable predictive control for the activated sludge process in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. Emphasis is given to the selection of a control configuration that contributes to minimising the economic costs while improving the removal efficiency of the nitrogen compounds. For this task, a simple dynamic matrix control algorithm is favoured for controlling the nitrogen concentrations at the end of the biological process. The behaviour of the activated sludge process is reproduced in a commercial simulator that acts as a real-time testing platform and that is also used for identifying the multivariable input–output models for the predictive controller. For demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach, different control configurations are considered and compared against the aeration control strategies currently used at the plant. Based on the simulation results, this work shows the potentiality of the dynamic matrix control which is able to decrease the energy consumption costs and, at the same time, reduce the ammonia peaks and nitrate concentration in the effluent.  相似文献   
7.
This paper presents an optimal control law policy for maximizing biogas production of anaerobic digesters. In particular, using a simple model of the anaerobic digestion process, we derive a control law to maximize the biogas production over a period T using the dilution rate as the control variable. Depending on initial conditions and constraints on the actuator (the dilution rate D(·)), the search for a solution to the optimal control problem reveals very different levels of difficulty. In the present paper, we consider that there are no severe constraints on the actuator. In particular, the interval in which the input flow rate lives includes the value which allows the biogas to be maximized at equilibrium. For this case, we solve the optimal control problem using classical tools of differential equations analysis. Numerical simulations illustrate the robustness of the control law with respect to several parameters, notably with respect to initial conditions. We use these results to show that the heuristic control law proposed by Steyer et al., 1999 [20] is optimal in a certain sense. The optimal trajectories are then compared with those given by a purely numerical optimal control solver (i.e. the “BOCOP” toolkit) which is an open-source toolbox for solving optimal control problems. When the exact analytical solution to the optimal control problem cannot be found, we suggest that such numerical tool can be used to intuiter optimal solutions.  相似文献   
8.
We present two dual control approaches to the model maintenance problem based on adaptive model predictive control (mpc). The controllers employ systematic self-excitation and design experiments that are performed under normal operation, resulting in improved control performance with smaller output variance and less control effort. Our control formulations offer a novel approach to the question of how to excite the plant input to generate informative data within the context of mpc and adaptive control. One controller actively tries to reduce the parameter-estimate error covariances; the other controller maximizes the information in the signals for enhanced learning. Our approach differs from existing ones in that we let our controllers converge to standard certainty equivalence (ce) mpc when the parameter uncertainty decreases or more information is generated, and as a result we avoid plant excitation when the uncertainty is low or enough information has been generated. We demonstrate that the controllers work well with a large number of tuning configurations and also address the issue of models that are not admissible for control design.  相似文献   
9.
A variable structure control (VSC) method for unstable industrial processes is proposed. The proposed control method is able to provide a highly satisfactory system performance and to tackle with robustness issues of the processes in the presence of uncertainties. An ITAE-based numerical tuning algorithm for acquiring optimal control parameters, and a direct auto-tuning mechanism for the proposed controller are also provided. The performance of the proposed VSC method is illustrated on some unstable process models including a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), in order to show its effectiveness, validity and feasibility.  相似文献   
10.
The optimal boundary control problem is studied for coupled parabolic PDE–ODE systems. The linear quadratic method is used and exploits an infinite-dimensional state-space representation of the coupled PDE–ODE system. Linearization of the nonlinear system is established around a steady-state profile. Using appropriate state transformations, the linearized system has been formulated as a well-posed infinite-dimensional system with bounded input and output operators. It has been shown that the resulting system is a Riesz spectral system. The linear quadratic control problem has been solved using the corresponding Riccati equation and the solution of the corresponding eigenvalue problem. The results were applied to the case study of a catalytic cracking reactor with catalyst deactivation. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.  相似文献   
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