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1.
Although microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate much lower power densities than hydrogen fuel cells, the characteristics of the cathode can also substantially affect electricity generation. Cathodes used for MFCs are often either Pt-coated carbon electrodes immersed in water that use dissolved oxygen as the electron acceptor or they are plain carbon electrodes in a ferricyanide solution. The characteristics and performance of these two cathodes were compared using a two-chambered MFC. Power generation using the Pt-carbon cathode and dissolved oxygen (saturated) reached a maximum of 0.097 mW within 120 h after inoculation (wastewater sludge and 20 mM acetate) when the cathode was equal size to the anode (2.5 x 4.5 cm). Once stable power was generated after replacing the MFC with fresh medium (no sludge), the Coulombic efficiency ranged from 63 to 78%. Power was proportional to the dissolved oxygen concentration in a manner consistent with Monod-type kinetics, with a half saturation constant of K(DO) = 1.74 mg of O2/L. Power increased by 24% when the cathode surface areas were increased from 22.5 to 67.5 cm2 and decreased by 56% when the cathode surface area was reduced to 5.8 cm2. Power was also substantially reduced (by 78% to 0.02 mW) if Pt was not used on the cathode. By using ferricyanide instead of dissolved oxygen, the maximum power increased by 50-80% versus that obtained with dissolved oxygen. This result was primarily due to increased mass transfer efficiencies and the larger cathode potential (332 mV) of ferricyanide than that obtained with dissolved oxygen (268 mV). A cathode potential of 804 mV (NHE basis) is theoretically possible using dissolved oxygen, indicating that further improvements in cathode performance with oxygen as the electron acceptor are possible that could lead to increased power densities in this type of MFC.  相似文献
2.
Analysis of kimchi microflora using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique was used to determine the microfloral composition during the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable food. The kimchi was fermented at 10 degrees C or 20 degrees C for 30 or 20 days, respectively. DGGE of the partially amplified 16S rDNA was performed and the most intense bands sequenced. The application of this culture-independent molecular technique determined that the lactic acid bacteria Weissella confusa, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus curvatus were the main microorganisms responsible for kimchi fermentation.  相似文献
3.
L-threonine production was investigated in a minimal salt medium using L-threonine-overproducing Escherichia coli MT201, derived from E. coli K-12. It was observed that dry cell weight reached 12.5 g/l with 15.9 g/lL-threonine. To increase dry cell weight and L-threonine production, the fermentation process was optimized. When biotin was added as growth factor, L-threonine production reached 52.0 g/l from 15.9 g/l without biotin. Dry cell weight and L-threonine production were further increased by continuous feeding of the feed media with an optimized L-methionine concentration (5.0 g/l). However, high-cell-density culture caused oxygen-limited condition, which resulted in the accumulation of organic acids. To overcome this problem, oxygen-enriched air was supplied to the fermentor with the minimal salt medium. Under these optimal conditions, we achieved an L-threonine production of 80.2 g/l in the minimal salt medium.  相似文献
4.
Candida tropicalis, an osmophilic strain isolated from honeycomb, produced xylitol at a maximal volumetric productivity of 3.5 g l(-1) h(-1) from an initial xylose concentration of 200 g l(-1). Even at a very high xylose concentration, e.g., 350 g l(-1), this strain produced xylitol at a moderate rate of 2.07 g l(-1) h(-1). In a fed-batch fermentation of xylose and glucose, 260 g l(-1) xylose was added, and the xylitol production was 234 g l(-1) for 48 h, corresponding to a rate of 4.88 g l(-1) h(-1). To increase xylitol productivity, cells were recycled in a submerged membrane bioreactor with suction pressure and air sparging. For each recycle round in cell-recycle fermentation, the average concentration of xylitol produced, fermentation time, volumetric productivity, and product yield were 180 g l(-1), 19.5 h, 8.5 g l(-1) h(-1), and 85%, respectively. When cell-recycle fermentation was started with the cell mass concentrated twofold after batch fermentation and performed for 10 recycle rounds, we achieved a very high productivity of 12 g l(-1) h(-1). The productivity and total amount of xylitol in cell-recycle fermentation were 3.4- and 11.0-fold higher than those in batch fermentation, respectively.  相似文献
5.
A survey for the occurrence of nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in Korean cereals (totalling 53 samples) harvested in 1983, showed that 96%, 72% and 57% of the samples were contaminated with NIV, DON and ZEN, respectively. Average concentrations (micrograms/kg) in unpolished barley were 546 (NIV), 117 (DON) and 110 (ZEN), and those in polished barley were 130 (NIV) and 21 (DON). The ZEN levels were below the detection limit (1 microgram/kg). Malt, wheat and rye were also heavily contaminated with these Fusarium mycotoxins. The results of this survey show that Korean cereals harvested in 1983 were significantly contaminated with NIV, DON and ZEN, and the incidence and levels, where observed, are similar to those reported in Japan.  相似文献
6.
Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a copolymer of microbial polyester, was fabricated as a nanofibrous film by electrospinning and composited with hydroxyapatite (HAp) by soaking in simulated body fluid. Compared with a PHBV cast (flat) film, the electrospun PHBV nanofibrous film was hydrophobic. However, after HAp deposition, both of the surfaces were extremely hydrophilic. The degradation rate of HAp/PHBV nanofibrous films in the presence of polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase was very fast. Nanofiber formation increased the specific surface area and HAp enhanced the invasion of enzyme into the film by increasing surface hydrophilicity. The surface of the nanofibrous film showed enhanced cell adhesion over that of the flat film, although cell adhesion was not significantly affected by the combination with HAp.  相似文献
7.
A total of 410 domestic Korean food samples were analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. by the conventional U.S. Department of Agriculture protocol, and presumptive strains were identified by morphological, cultural and biochemical tests according to Bergey's manual and confirmed by API-Listeria kit. Among the total 410 food samples, 46 samples (11.2%) were found to be contaminated with Listeria species. Among the 46 strains of Listeria spp. isolates, 8 strains (17.42%) for Listeria monocytogenes, 3 strains (6.5%) for Listeria seeligeri, 33 strains (71.7%) for Listeria innocua, and 2 strains (4.4%) for Listeria welshimeri were identified, respectively. Also, only beef, chicken, pork, frozen foods, and sausage were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, and the other products were free of L. monocytogenes. Of 46 Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua (71.7%) was the most predominantly isolated in a variety of foods compared to other Listeria spp. An in vitro virulence assay for Listeria spp. using myeloma and hybridoma cells from murine and human sources was performed. The result showed that only L. monocytogenes killed approximately 95 to 100% hybridoma cells after 6 h and the other Listeria species, such as L. innocua, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri strains had about 0 to 10% lethal effect on hybridoma cells. Also, an antibiotic susceptibility test showed that Listeria spp. isolates were very susceptible to the antibiotics tested, except for nalidixic acid. Also, serotyping results showed 75% of L. monocytogenes isolates from beef, chicken, and frozen pizza belonged to serotype 1 and 25% from sausage were type 4.  相似文献
8.
Recently, enzymatic quorum quenching has proven its potential as an innovative approach for biofouling control in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) for advanced wastewater treatment. However, practical issues on the cost and stability of enzymes are yet to be solved, which requires more effective quorum quenching methods. In this study, a novel quorum quenching strategy, interspecies quorum quenching by bacterial cell, was elaborated and proved to be efficient and economically feasible biofouling control in MBR. A recombinant Escherichia coli which producing N-acyl homoserine lactonase or quorum quenching Rhodococcus sp. isolated from a real MBR plant was encapsulated inside the lumen of microporous hollow fiber membrane, respectively. The porous membrane containing these functional bacteria (i.e., "microbial-vessel") was put into the submerged MBR to alleviate biofouling on the surface of filtration membrane. The effect of biofouling inhibition by the microbial-vessel was evaluated over 80 days of MBR operation. Successful control of biofouling in a laboratory scale MBR suggests that the biofouling control through the interspecies quorum quenching could be expanded to the plant scale of MBR and various environmental engineering systems with economic feasibility.  相似文献
9.
Further survey on the Fusarium mycotoxins in Korean cereals   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Fifty-one samples of cereals from the 1984 harvest from Korea were analyzed for nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FX), deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-acetyl-DON by gas chromatography (GC) utilizing a 63Ni electron capture detector (ECD), and were quantitated for zearalenone (ZEN) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). Trichothecenes and ZEN in the positive samples were confirmed by GC-mass spectrometry (MS). Out of 51 samples, 51, 46 and 42 were positive for NIV, DON and ZEN, respectively, and one malt sample was heavily contaminated with NIV (2675 ng/g) and DON (246 ng/g), and one wheat sample was heavily contaminated with NIV (3169 ng/g). Neither FX nor 3-acetyl-DON was detected in any of the samples. The data reported here indicates that Korean cereals harvested in 1984 are simultaneously contaminated with NIV, DON and ZEN, and the incidences and levels are similar to those observed in the cereals harvested in 1983.  相似文献
10.
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