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Electron beam welds of aluminum alloy 2219 offer much higher strength compared to gas tungsten arc welds of the same alloy and the reasons for this have not been fully explored. In this study both types of welds were made and mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing and pitting corrosion resistance by potentio dynamic polarization tests. It is shown that electron beam welds exhibit superior mechanical and corrosion properties. The weld metals have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and electron probe micro analysis. Presence of partially disintegrated precipitates in the weld metal, finer micro porosity and uniform distribution of copper in the matrix were found to be the reasons for superior properties of electron beam welds apart from the fine equiaxed grain structure. Transmission electron micrographs of the heat affected zones revealed the precipitate disintegration and over aging in gas tungsten arc welds.  相似文献
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Purification of cadmium in the presence of a thin (~0·001?mm) oxide layer on the surface of the molten metal was carried out using a simple system designed and fabricated locally. The analytical results revealed that the distillation through oxide layer gave better separation for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Sn, Hg and Tl, when compared to the distillation without oxide layer. This was attributed due to the impurity metal oxide phases formation on the surface of the molten metal. The influence of oxygen flow time on the distillation rate of cadmium was established. There was no excess oxygen (O) retained in the distillate after two consecutive vacuum distillations through oxide route. The experiments were conducted at the level of nearly 1·5?kg a batch to study the impurities behaviour due to upscaling. The detailed chemical analysis of 58 impurity elements in Cd in presence and absence of oxide layer was carried out by glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS).  相似文献
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The nanocrystalline WO3 thin films were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering on quartz and p- type Si (100) substrates at a constant power of 25 W and at three different sputtering pressures (0.05, 0.01 and 0.5 mbar) and post annealed at different temperatures. The deposited films were characterized by XRD, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structural studies from XRD spectra reveals that the films deposited at 0.05 mbar and post annealed at 573 and 673 K have the predominant orthorhombic phase, whereas at 0.1 mbar and 573, 673 K triclinic phase is predominant. When sputtering pressure is at 0.5 mbar the predominant phase is monoclinic when annealed at 473 K and triclinic at 673 K. The optical energy gap is influenced significantly by sputtering pressure and post annealing temperatures. The optical energy gap of the films deposited at higher sputtering pressures and post annealed at lower temperatures is high due to smaller crystallite sizes. The thickness of all deposited films at different conditions is around 200 nm.  相似文献
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Lap joints of aluminium alloy A6061-T6 and galvanised steel DP800 were produced by an advanced gas metal arc welding process with AlSi3Mn filler. Four heat inputs designated as A (110 J mm−1), B (120 J mm−1), C (130 J mm−1) and D (140 J mm−1) were used during the process and the joints made were subjected to analysis of the microstructures, mechanical properties, residual stresses and corrosion behaviour. Microstructural analysis shows the formation and variation of Fe–Al intermetallic (IM) layer. It is also found that the joints made using the heat input of 120 J mm−1 exhibited highest tensile strength and better corrosion resistance. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of different IM phases with other strengthening precipitates.  相似文献
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