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1.
An introduction to kernel-based learning algorithms   总被引:136,自引:0,他引:136  
This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines, kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and kernel principal component analysis, as examples for successful kernel-based learning methods. We first give a short background about Vapnik-Chervonenkis theory and kernel feature spaces and then proceed to kernel based learning in supervised and unsupervised scenarios including practical and algorithmic considerations. We illustrate the usefulness of kernel algorithms by discussing applications such as optical character recognition and DNA analysis.  相似文献
2.
Training feedforward networks with the Marquardt algorithm   总被引:128,自引:0,他引:128  
The Marquardt algorithm for nonlinear least squares is presented and is incorporated into the backpropagation algorithm for training feedforward neural networks. The algorithm is tested on several function approximation problems, and is compared with a conjugate gradient algorithm and a variable learning rate algorithm. It is found that the Marquardt algorithm is much more efficient than either of the other techniques when the network contains no more than a few hundred weights.  相似文献
3.
An introduction to simulated evolutionary optimization   总被引:122,自引:0,他引:122  
Natural evolution is a population-based optimization process. Simulating this process on a computer results in stochastic optimization techniques that can often outperform classical methods of optimization when applied to difficult real-world problems. There are currently three main avenues of research in simulated evolution: genetic algorithms, evolution strategies, and evolutionary programming. Each method emphasizes a different facet of natural evolution. Genetic algorithms stress chromosomal operators. Evolution strategies emphasize behavioral changes at the level of the individual. Evolutionary programming stresses behavioral change at the level of the species. The development of each of these procedures over the past 35 years is described. Some recent efforts in these areas are reviewed.  相似文献
4.
Estimating the support of a high-dimensional distribution.   总被引:67,自引:0,他引:67  
Suppose you are given some data set drawn from an underlying probability distribution P and you want to estimate a "simple" subset S of input space such that the probability that a test point drawn from P lies outside of S equals some a priori specified value between 0 and 1. We propose a method to approach this problem by trying to estimate a function f that is positive on S and negative on the complement. The functional form of f is given by a kernel expansion in terms of a potentially small subset of the training data; it is regularized by controlling the length of the weight vector in an associated feature space. The expansion coefficients are found by solving a quadratic programming problem, which we do by carrying out sequential optimization over pairs of input patterns. We also provide a theoretical analysis of the statistical performance of our algorithm. The algorithm is a natural extension of the support vector algorithm to the case of unlabeled data.  相似文献
5.
Accuracy analysis for wavelet approximations   总被引:51,自引:0,他引:51  
"Constructive wavelet networks" are investigated as a universal tool for function approximation. The parameters of such networks are obtained via some "direct" Monte Carlo procedures. Approximation bounds are given. Typically, it is shown that such networks with one layer of "wavelons" achieve an L(2) error of order O(N(-(rho/d))), where N is the number of nodes, d is the problem dimension and rho is the number of summable derivatives of the approximated function. An algorithm is also proposed to estimate this approximation based on noisy input-output data observed from the function under consideration. Unlike neural network training, this estimation procedure does not rely on stochastic gradient type techniques such as the celebrated "backpropagation" and it completely avoids the problem of poor convergence or undesirable local minima.  相似文献
6.
Two algorithms for constructing a Delaunay triangulation   总被引:48,自引:0,他引:48  
This paper provides a unified discussion of the Delaunay triangulation. Its geometric properties are reviewed and several applications are discussed. Two algorithms are presented for constructing the triangulation over a planar set ofN points. The first algorithm uses a divide-and-conquer approach. It runs inO(N logN) time, which is asymptotically optimal. The second algorithm is iterative and requiresO(N 2) time in the worst case. However, its average case performance is comparable to that of the first algorithm.This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant MCS-76-17321 and the Joint Services Electronics Program under contract DAAB-07-72-0259.  相似文献
7.
Standardised questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms in an ergonomic or occupational health context are presented. The questions are forced choice variants and may be either self-administered or used in interviews. They concentrate on symptoms most often encountered in an occupational setting. The reliability of the questionnaires has been shown to be acceptable. Specific characteristics of work strain are reflected in the frequency of responses to the questionnaires.  相似文献
8.
Workflow Patterns   总被引:42,自引:0,他引:42  
Differences in features supported by the various contemporary commercial workflow management systems point to different insights of suitability and different levels of expressive power. The challenge, which we undertake in this paper, is to systematically address workflow requirements, from basic to complex. Many of the more complex requirements identified, recur quite frequently in the analysis phases of workflow projects, however their implementation is uncertain in current products. Requirements for workflow languages are indicated through workflow patterns. In this context, patterns address business requirements in an imperative workflow style expression, but are removed from specific workflow languages. The paper describes a number of workflow patterns addressing what we believe identify comprehensive workflow functionality. These patterns provide the basis for an in-depth comparison of a number of commercially availablework flow management systems. As such, this paper can be seen as the academic response to evaluations made by prestigious consulting companies. Typically, these evaluations hardly consider the workflow modeling language and routing capabilities, and focus more on the purely technical and commercial aspects.  相似文献
9.
G.  B. 《Computer》2000,32(14):877-887
Due to the highly complex and informal data that has to be managed in the conceptual design this early design phase still lacks of suitable computer support. Furthermore, existing approaches towards a computer aided conceptual design are insufficiently integrated with the downstream applications of the product development process. The paper therefore introduces an approach towards a feature-based integrated product model that incorporates a feature-based representation scheme for capturing product semantics handled in the conceptual design phase and links early design with part and assembly modelling.  相似文献
10.
Probabilistic visual learning for object representation   总被引:37,自引:0,他引:37  
We present an unsupervised technique for visual learning, which is based on density estimation in high-dimensional spaces using an eigenspace decomposition. Two types of density estimates are derived for modeling the training data: a multivariate Gaussian (for unimodal distributions) and a mixture-of-Gaussians model (for multimodal distributions). Those probability densities are then used to formulate a maximum-likelihood estimation framework for visual search and target detection for automatic object recognition and coding. Our learning technique is applied to the probabilistic visual modeling, detection, recognition, and coding of human faces and nonrigid objects, such as hands  相似文献
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