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Induction of decision trees   总被引:322,自引:2,他引:320  
The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to deal with information that is noisy and/or incomplete. A reported shortcoming of the basic algorithm is discussed and two means of overcoming it are compared. The paper concludes with illustrations of current research directions.  相似文献
2.
Learning Logical Definitions from Relations   总被引:41,自引:11,他引:30  
This paper describes FOIL, a system that learns Horn clauses from data expressed as relations. FOIL is based on ideas that have proved effective in attribute-value learning systems, but extends them to a first-order formalism. This new system has been applied successfully to several tasks taken from the machine learning literature.  相似文献
3.
Improved Estimates for the Accuracy of Small Disjuncts   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Learning systems often describe a target class as a disjunction of conjunctions of conditions. Recent work has noted that small disjuncts, i.e., those supported by few training examples, typically have poor predictive accuracy. One model of this accuracy is provided by the Bayes-Laplace formula based on the number of training examples covered by the disjunct and the number of them belonging to the target class. However, experiments show that small disjuncts associated with target classes of different relative frequencies tend to have different error rates. This note defines the context of a disjunct as the set of training examples that fail to satisfy at most one of its conditions. An empirical adaptation of the Bayes-Laplace formula is presented that also makes use of the relative frequency of the target class in this context. Trials are reported comparing the performance of the original formula and the adaptation in six learning tasks.  相似文献
4.
FOIL is a first-order learning system that uses information in a collection of relations to construct theories expressed in a dialect of Prolog. This paper provides an overview of the principal ideas and methods used in the current version of the system, including two recent additions. We present examples of tasks tackled by FOIL and of systems that adapt and extend its approach.  相似文献
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