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1.
Color indexing   总被引:281,自引:0,他引:281  
Computer vision is embracing a new research focus in which the aim is to develop visual skills for robots that allow them to interact with a dynamic, realistic environment. To achieve this aim, new kinds of vision algorithms need to be developed which run in real time and subserve the robot's goals. Two fundamental goals are determining the location of a known object. Color can be successfully used for both tasks.This article demonstrates that color histograms of multicolored objects provide a robust, efficient cue for indexing into a large database of models. It shows that color histograms are stable object representations in the presence of occlusion and over change in view, and that they can differentiate among a large number of objects. For solving the identification problem, it introduces a technique calledHistogram Intersection, which matches model and image histograms and a fast incremental version of Histogram Intersection, which allows real-time indexing into a large database of stored models. For solving the location problem it introduces an algorithm calledHistogram Backprojection, which performs this task efficiently in crowded scenes.  相似文献
2.
Snakes: Active contour models   总被引:262,自引:6,他引:256  
A snake is an energy-minimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scale-space continuation can be used to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature. Snakes provide a unified account of a number of visual problems, including detection of edges, lines, and subjective contours; motion tracking; and stereo matching. We have used snakes successfully for interactive interpretation, in which user-imposed constraint forces guide the snake near features of interest.  相似文献
3.
A Roadmap of Agent Research and Development   总被引:118,自引:0,他引:118  
This paper provides an overview of research and development activities in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. It aims to identify key concepts and applications, and to indicate how they relate to one-another. Some historical context to the field of agent-based computing is given, and contemporary research directions are presented. Finally, a range of open issues and future challenges are highlighted.  相似文献
4.
The Gaia Methodology for Agent-Oriented Analysis and Design   总被引:65,自引:7,他引:58  
This article presents Gaia: a methodology for agent-oriented analysis and design. The Gaia methodology is both general, in that it is applicable to a wide range of multi-agent systems, and comprehensive, in that it deals with both the macro-level (societal) and the micro-level (agent) aspects of systems. Gaia is founded on the view of a multi-agent system as a computational organisation consisting of various interacting roles. We illustrate Gaia through a case study (an agent-based business process management system).  相似文献
5.
On the Optimality of the Simple Bayesian Classifier under Zero-One Loss   总被引:61,自引:0,他引:61  
The simple Bayesian classifier is known to be optimal when attributes are independent given the class, but the question of whether other sufficient conditions for its optimality exist has so far not been explored. Empirical results showing that it performs surprisingly well in many domains containing clear attribute dependences suggest that the answer to this question may be positive. This article shows that, although the Bayesian classifier's probability estimates are only optimal under quadratic loss if the independence assumption holds, the classifier itself can be optimal under zero-one loss (misclassification rate) even when this assumption is violated by a wide margin. The region of quadratic-loss optimality of the Bayesian classifier is in fact a second-order infinitesimal fraction of the region of zero-one optimality. This implies that the Bayesian classifier has a much greater range of applicability than previously thought. For example, in this article it is shown to be optimal for learning conjunctions and disjunctions, even though they violate the independence assumption. Further, studies in artificial domains show that it will often outperform more powerful classifiers for common training set sizes and numbers of attributes, even if its bias is a priori much less appropriate to the domain. This article's results also imply that detecting attribute dependence is not necessarily the best way to extend the Bayesian classifier, and this is also verified empirically.  相似文献
6.
Robust Real-Time Face Detection   总被引:53,自引:1,他引:52  
This paper describes a face detection framework that is capable of processing images extremely rapidly while achieving high detection rates. There are three key contributions. The first is the introduction of a new image representation called the Integral Image which allows the features used by our detector to be computed very quickly. The second is a simple and efficient classifier which is built using the AdaBoost learning algorithm (Freund and Schapire, 1995) to select a small number of critical visual features from a very large set of potential features. The third contribution is a method for combining classifiers in a cascade which allows background regions of the image to be quickly discarded while spending more computation on promising face-like regions. A set of experiments in the domain of face detection is presented. The system yields face detection performance comparable to the best previous systems (Sung and Poggio, 1998; Rowley et al., 1998; Schneiderman and Kanade, 2000; Roth et al., 2000). Implemented on a conventional desktop, face detection proceeds at 15 frames per second.  相似文献
7.
We discuss algorithms for learning and revising user profiles that can determine which World Wide Web sites on a given topic would be interesting to a user. We describe the use of a naive Bayesian classifier for this task, and demonstrate that it can incrementally learn profiles from user feedback on the interestingness of Web sites. Furthermore, the Bayesian classifier may easily be extended to revise user provided profiles. In an experimental evaluation we compare the Bayesian classifier to computationally more intensive alternatives, and show that it performs at least as well as these approaches throughout a range of different domains. In addition, we empirically analyze the effects of providing the classifier with background knowledge in form of user defined profiles and examine the use of lexical knowledge for feature selection. We find that both approaches can substantially increase the prediction accuracy.  相似文献
8.
Aurora: a new model and architecture for data stream management   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41  
This paper describes the basic processing model and architecture of Aurora, a new system to manage data streams for monitoring applications. Monitoring applications differ substantially from conventional business data processing. The fact that a software system must process and react to continual inputs from many sources (e.g., sensors) rather than from human operators requires one to rethink the fundamental architecture of a DBMS for this application area. In this paper, we present Aurora, a new DBMS currently under construction at Brandeis University, Brown University, and M.I.T. We first provide an overview of the basic Aurora model and architecture and then describe in detail a stream-oriented set of operators.Received: 12 September 2002, Accepted: 26 March 2003, Published online: 21 July 2003Edited by Y. Ioannidis  相似文献
9.
Plans and resource-bounded practical reasoning   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34  
An architecture for a rational agent must allow for means-end reasoning, for the weighing of competing alternatives, and for interactions betwen these two forms of reasoning. Such an architecture must also address the problem of resource boundedness. We sketch a solution of the first problem that points the way to a solution of the second. In particular, we present a high-level specification of the practical-reasoning component of an architecture for a resource-bounded rational agent. In this architecture, a major role of the agent's plans is to constrain the amount of further practical reasoning she must perform.  相似文献
10.
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