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有色金属冶炼废渣有价金属湿法回收技术现状
引用本文:赵金艳,王金生,郑骥.有色金属冶炼废渣有价金属湿法回收技术现状[J].矿产综合利用,2012(4):7-12.
作者姓名:赵金艳  王金生  郑骥
作者单位:1. 北京师范大学水科学研究院,北京100875;北京机电院高技术股份有限公司,北京100027
2. 北京师范大学水科学研究院,北京,100875
3. 北京机电院高技术股份有限公司,北京,100027
基金项目:环保公益性行业科研基金重大项目
摘    要:随着有色冶炼行业的迅猛发展,导致了大量的有色冶炼废渣堆置,对土壤、地下水等生态环境造成污染和危害,严重威胁着人类健康。综合评述了湿法冶金技术回收有色金属冶炼废渣中有价金属的应用研究现状,湿法冶金包括金属浸出、净化和提取过程。其中浸出技术主要包括酸性浸出、碱性浸出和微生物浸出,但目前浸出技术仍停留在探索浸出条件,尚未出现高效、低耗和专属的浸出剂;净化过程包括溶剂萃取、离子交换、沉淀和还原等,净化过程的关键取决于高效、易得、成本低、损耗少的萃取剂和离子交换剂的研制成功和合理使用;电解法是工业上大规模提取和精炼金属的主要方法,该法可以直接制取纯净的金属;湿法冶金与其他方法联用技术是未来的发展方向。

关 键 词:湿法冶金  有色金属  冶炼废渣  有价金属  回收

Technology and Current Situation of Hydrometallurgical Recovery Valuable Metal from Nonferrous Metallurgical Waste Slag
Zhao Jin-yan,Wang Jin-sheng and Zheng Ji.Technology and Current Situation of Hydrometallurgical Recovery Valuable Metal from Nonferrous Metallurgical Waste Slag[J].Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources,2012(4):7-12.
Authors:Zhao Jin-yan  Wang Jin-sheng and Zheng Ji
Institution:1.College of Water Research,Beijing Normal University Beijing,China; 2.Institute of Advanced Technology BMEI Co.,Ltd.Beijing,China)
Abstract:The rapid development of nonferrous smelting industry leads to the pile of a large number of nonferrous smelting slag,which brings pollution and harm to soil and groundwater and seriously threats human health.The status of the application of the valuable metals in the non-ferrous metal smelting slag recovered by hydrometallurgy technology was stated.Metal leaching,purification and extraction process were included in the process of hydrometallurgy.Among which the leaching technology includes acid leaching,alkaline leaching and microbiological leaching,but the leaching technology is still in the stage of exploration and there is no high-efficiency,low-cost and exclusive leaching agent.The purifying process includes solvent extraction,ion exchange,precipitation and reduction,the key of which is the successful research and rational use of high-efficiency,easy,low-cost,less loss of extraction and ion exchange agent.The main method of a large scale extraction and refining metals is electrolysis,which can be adopted to produce pure metals directly.The combination of hydrometallurgy and other technologies is the direction of future development.
Keywords:Hydrometallurgy  Nonferrous metal  Smelting residue  Valuable metal  Recovery
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