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石油与天然气运移研究综述
引用本文:李明诚.石油与天然气运移研究综述[J].石油勘探与开发,2000,27(4):3-10.
作者姓名:李明诚
作者单位:中国地质大学,北京
摘    要:石油与天然气都是流体矿产,在岩石中的运移主要是一种地球物理作用。油气运移研究的主要问题是动力学和运动学机制,也就是运移的动力、相态、通道和数量。初次运移的动力主要是异常高压,二次运移的动力主要是浮力和流体势差。石油运移的相态主要是油相,天然气可以是水溶相、油溶相、气相和扩散相。石油以油相运移、天然气以气相运移最为有效,无需相态转变就能直接成藏。初次运移的通道主要是微裂隙。并不是所有可渗透岩石都是二次运移通道,有效运移通道和主流向是二次运移的特征。断层在活动时具通道性,活动期后的封闭与成岩作用有关,长期活动的断层是油气运移的通道。油气运移动力的积蓄与释放和通道的开启与封闭交替出现,决定了排烃和二次运移都是幕式的,从而决定了充注圈闭和成藏的幕式性,这已得到油藏地球化学研究的证实。油气幕式运移与地流体的幕式流动都与地壳的幕式构造活动相辅相成、互为因果。油气运移是发生在地质历史过程中的事件,因此其研究方法应当是动态分析和综合研究。目前油气运移研究仍存在很多理论和方法上的问题,加强基础理论的研究、总结各类盆地的运聚规律、提高计算机模拟和实验室模拟的水平,是今后油气运移研究的当务之急

关 键 词:石油  天然气  运移研究  综述

An overview of hydrocarbon migration research
LI Ming-cheng.An overview of hydrocarbon migration research[J].Petroleum Exploration and Development,2000,27(4):3-10.
Authors:LI Ming-cheng
Institution:China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, P. R. China
Abstract:Oil and natural gas are both fluid mineral resources, the principal characteristic of which is their migration performance. Migration of oil and gas in the rocks is mainly a kind of geophysical action. The major problems Of hydrocarbon migration research are the mechanisms of dynamics and kinematics, in other words, are the driving force, phase (or state), pathway and quantity. The driving force of primary migration is mainly abnormal high pressure and that of secondary migration is buoyance and fluid potential difference. The petroleum migration mainly in an oil phase, as for natural gas migration, it can occur in water-solution, oil-solution, free gas and diffusion phase. The most effective phase of hydrocarbon migration is in the oil phase or free gas phase, which directly forms the reservoirs without changing the phases. The pathway of primary migration is chiefly the microfissure, for the secondary migration not all permeable rocks are the pathways and have the characteristics of effective migration pathway and main flow direction. The fault posses the pathway characteristics in the initial stage of its forming and the deuteric seal is related to the diagenesis. The long-term active faults become the pathway of hydrocarbon migration. The gathering of the driving force and opening and closing of the pathway determine the episodic expulsion and episodic secondary migration, thereby determine the episodic injection and forming reservoir. This point has been confirmed by the reservoir geochemistry. The episodic flow of hydrocarbon migration and all geofluid and the episodic action of crust structure are complementary to each other and mutually determined. Since the hydrocarbon migration is a geological event occuring in the geologic historical process, the research method of it ought to be the dynamic analysis and synthesis. Owning to many problems on hydrocarbon migration theories and research methods at present, it is a burning issue of the moment to strengthen the foundational theory research, synthesize the migration and accumulation rules of all types of basin and improve the level of computer and laboratory simulation.
Keywords:Primary migration  Secondary  migration  Review  Power  Phase state  Hydrodynamic gradient  Oil and gas accumulating  Reservoir Preservation condition  Theory  Application
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