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1.
Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious fungous diseases in rice. In the past decades, studies have reported that numerous M. oryzae effectors were secreted into plant cells to facilitate inoculation. Effectors target host proteins to assist the virulence of pathogens via the localization of specific organelles, such as the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplast, etc. However, studies on the pathogenesis of peroxisome-targeting effectors are still limited. In our previous study, we analyzed the subcellular localization of candidate effectors from M. oryzae using the agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system in tobacco and found that MoPtep1 (peroxisomes-targeted effector protein 1) localized in plant peroxisomes. Here, we proved that MoPtep1 was induced in the early stage of the M. oryzae infection and positively regulated the pathogenicity, while it did not affect the vegetative growth of mycelia. Subcellular localization results showed that MoPtep1 was localized in the plant peroxisomes with a signal peptide and a cupredoxin domain. Sequence analysis indicated that the homologous protein of MoPtep1 in plant-pathogenic fungi was evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, MoPtep1 could suppress INF1-induced cell death in tobacco, and the targeting host proteins were identified using the Y2H system. Our results suggested that MoPtep1 is an important pathogenic effector in rice blast.  相似文献   

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The increasing emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogens requires urgent solutions for crop disease management. Here, we describe a structural investigation of new fungicides obtained by combining strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor pharmacophores. We identified compounds endowed with very good activity against wild-type Pyricularia oryzae, combined in some cases with promising activity against strobilurin-resistant strains. The first three-dimensional model of P. oryzae cytochrome bc1 complex containing azoxystrobin as a ligand was developed. The model was validated with a set of commercially available strobilurins, and it well explains both the resistance mechanism to strobilurins mediated by the mutation G143A and the activity of metyltetraprole against strobilurin-resistant strains. The obtained results shed light on the key recognition determinants of strobilurin-like derivatives in the cytochrome bc1 active site and will guide the further rational design of new fungicides able to overcome resistance caused by G143A mutation in the rice blast pathogen.  相似文献   

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A series of new oxadiazole sulfone derivatives containing an amide moiety was synthesized based on fragment virtual screening to screen high-efficiency antibacterial agents for rice bacterial diseases. All target compounds showed greater bactericidal activity than commercial bactericides. 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-((5-(methylsulfonyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)acrylamide (10) showed excellent antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, with EC50 values of 0.36 and 0.53 mg/L, respectively, which were superior to thiodiazole copper (113.38 and 131.54 mg/L) and bismerthiazol (83.07 and 105.90 mg/L). The protective activity of compound 10 against rice bacterial leaf blight and rice bacterial leaf streak was 43.2% and 53.6%, respectively, which was superior to that of JHXJZ (34.1% and 26.4%) and thiodiazole copper (33.0% and 30.2%). The curative activity of compound 10 against rice bacterial leaf blight and rice bacterial leaf streak was 44.5% and 51.7%, respectively, which was superior to that of JHXJZ (32.6% and 24.4%) and thiodiazole copper (27.1% and 28.6%). Moreover, compound 10 might inhibit the growth of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola by affecting the extracellular polysaccharides, destroying cell membranes, and inhibiting the enzyme activity of dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase.  相似文献   

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Avermectins are macrocyclic lactones with anthelmintic activity. Recently, they were found to be effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which accounts for one third of the worldwide deaths from antimicrobial resistance. However, their anti-mycobacterial mode of action remains to be elucidated. The activity of selamectin was determined against a panel of M. tuberculosis mutants. Two strains carrying mutations in DprE1, the decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose oxidase involved in the synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan, were more susceptible to selamectin. Biochemical assays against the Mycobacterium smegmatis DprE1 protein confirmed this finding, and docking studies predicted a binding site in a loop that included Leu275. Sequence alignment revealed variants in this position among mycobacterial species, with the size and hydrophobicity of the residue correlating with their MIC values; M. smegmatis DprE1 variants carrying these point mutations validated the docking predictions. However, the correlation was not confirmed when M. smegmatis mutant strains were constructed and MIC phenotypic assays performed. Likewise, metabolic labeling of selamectin-treated M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells with 14C-labeled acetate did not reveal the expected lipid profile associated with DprE1 inhibition. Together, our results confirm the in vitro interactions of selamectin and DprE1 but suggest that selamectin could be a multi-target anti-mycobacterial compound.  相似文献   

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This study focuses on a commercial plant elicitor based on chitooligosaccharides (BIG®), which aids in rice plant growth and disease resistance to bacterial leaf blight (BLB). When the pathogen (Xoo) vigorously attacks rice that has suffered yield losses, it can cause damage in up to 20% of the plant. Furthermore, Xoo is a seed-borne pathogen that can survive in rice seeds for an extended period. In this study, when rice seeds were soaked and sprayed with BIG®, there was a significant increase in shoot and root length, as well as plant biomass. Furthermore, BIG®-treated rice plants showed a significant reduction in BLB severity of more than 33%. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) analysis was used to characterize BIG®’s mechanism in the chemical structure of rice leaves. The SR-FTIR results at 1650, 1735, and 1114 cm−1 indicated changes in biochemical components such as pectins, lignins, proteins, and celluloses. These findings demonstrated that commercial BIG® not only increased rice growth but also induced resistance to BLB. The drug’s target enzyme, Xoo 1075 from Xanthomonas oryzae (PDB ID: 5CY8), was analyzed for its interactions with polymer ingredients, specifically chitooligosaccharides, to gain molecular insights down to the atomic level. The results are intriguing, with a strong binding of the chitooligosaccharide polymer with the drug target, revealing 10 hydrogen bonds between the protein and polymer. Overall, the computational analysis supported the experimentally demonstrated strong binding of chitooligosaccharides to the drug target.  相似文献   

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Methionine restriction reduces animal lipid deposition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how the body reacts to the condition and regulates lipid metabolism remains unknown. In this study, a feeding trial was performed on rice field eel Monopterus albus with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic feeds that included different levels of methionine (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/kg). Compared with M0 (0 g/kg), the crude lipid and crude protein of M. albus increased markedly in M8 (8 g/kg) (p < 0.05), serum (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-esterified free fatty acids), and hepatic contents (hepatic lipase, apolipoprotein-A, fatty acid synthetase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoprteinlipase). However, in the serum, very-low-density lipoprotein and hepatic contents (hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase, Acetyl CoA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransterase, and mirosomal triglygeride transfer protein) decreased markedly in M8 (p < 0.05). The contents of hepatic C18:2n-6, C22:6n-3, and n-3PUFA in the M8 group were significantly higher than those in M0 (p < 0.05), and the contents of lipid droplets in M8 were higher than those in M0. Compared with M0, the hepatic gcn2, eif2α, hsl, mttp, ldlrap, pparα, cpt1, and cpt2 were remarkably downregulated in M8, while srebf2, lpl, moat2, dgat2, hdlbp, srebf1, fas, fads2, me1, pfae, and icdh were markedly upregulated in M8. Moreover, hepatic SREBP1 and FAS protein expression were upregulated significantly in M8 (p < 0.01). In short, methionine restriction decreased the lipid deposition of M. albus, especially for hepatic lipid deposition, and mainly downregulated hepatic fatty acid metabolism. Besides, gcn2 could be activated under methionine restriction.  相似文献   

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Plant pathogenic fungi produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites with unique and complex structures. However, most fungal secondary metabolism genes are poorly expressed under laboratory conditions. Moreover, the relationship between pathogenicity and secondary metabolites remains unclear. To activate silent gene clusters in fungi, successful approaches such as epigenetic control, promoter exchange, and heterologous expression have been reported. Pyricularia oryzae, a well-characterized plant pathogenic fungus, is the causal pathogen of rice blast disease. P. oryzae is also rich in secondary metabolism genes. However, biosynthetic genes for only four groups of secondary metabolites have been well characterized in this fungus. Biosynthetic genes for two of the four groups of secondary metabolites have been identified by activating secondary metabolism. This review focuses on the biosynthesis and roles of the four groups of secondary metabolites produced by P. oryzae. These secondary metabolites include melanin, a polyketide compound required for rice infection; pyriculols, phytotoxic polyketide compounds; nectriapyrones, antibacterial polyketide compounds produced mainly by symbiotic fungi including endophytes and plant pathogens; and tenuazonic acid, a well-known mycotoxin produced by various plant pathogenic fungi and biosynthesized by a unique NRPS-PKS enzyme.  相似文献   

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The rapid emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is a major global health concern. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and peptidomimetics have arisen as a new class of antibacterial agents in recent years in an attempt to overcome antibiotic resistance. A library of phenylglyoxamide-based small molecular peptidomimetics was synthesised by incorporating an N-alkylsulfonyl hydrophobic group with varying alkyl chain lengths and a hydrophilic cationic group into a glyoxamide core appended to phenyl ring systems. The quaternary ammonium iodide salts 16d and 17c showed excellent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 and 8 μM (2.9 and 5.6 μg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while the guanidinium hydrochloride salt 34a showed an MIC of 16 μM (8.5 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli. Additionally, the quaternary ammonium iodide salt 17c inhibited 70% S. aureus biofilm formation at 16 μM. It also disrupted 44% of pre-established S. aureus biofilms at 32 μM and 28% of pre-established E. coli biofilms 64 μM, respectively. A cytoplasmic membrane permeability study indicated that the synthesised peptidomimetics acted via disruption and depolarisation of membranes. Moreover, the quaternary ammonium iodide salts 16d and 17c were non-toxic against human cells at their therapeutic dosages against S. aureus.  相似文献   

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Changes in the molecular structure of synthetic cathinones has led to an increase in the number of novel emerging drugs in the illicit drug market at an unprecedented rate. Unfortunately, little is known about the neuropsychopharmacology of recently emerged halogen-substituted α-PVP derivatives. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of para- and meta-halogen (F-, Cl-, and Br-) substitutions on the in vitro, in silico, and in vivo effects of α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) derivatives. HEK293 cells expressing the human dopamine or serotonin transporter (hDAT and hSERT) were used for the uptake inhibition and transporter affinity assays. Molecular docking was used to model the interaction mechanism against DAT. Swiss CD-1 mice were used for the horizontal locomotor activity, open field test, and conditioned place preference paradigm. All compounds demonstrated potent DA uptake inhibition and higher DAT selectivity than cocaine. Meta-substituted cathinones showed higher DAT/SERT ratios than their para- analogs, which correlates with an increased psychostimulant effect in vivo and with different meta- and para-in silico interactions at DAT. Moreover, all compounds induced rewarding and acute anxiogenic effects in mice. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the role of meta- and para-halogen substitutions in the mechanism of action and provides the first evidence of the rewarding and anxiety-like properties of halogenated α-PVP derivatives.  相似文献   

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Rice blast is a major destructive fungal disease that poses a serious threat to rice production and the improvement of blast resistance is critical to rice breeding. The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99 has been suggested as an antimicrobial peptide conferring resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases. Here, a vector harboring the MSI-99 gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome via particle bombardment. Transformed plants were obtained and verified to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. In planta assays demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco plants displayed an enhanced resistance to the fungal disease. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the crude protein extracts from the transgenic plants manifested an antimicrobial activity against E. coli, even after incubation at 120 °C for 20 min, indicating significant heat stability of MSI-99. More importantly, the MSI-99-containing protein extracts were firstly proved in vitro and in vivo to display significant suppressive effects on two rice blast isolates. These findings provide a strong basis for the development of new biopesticides to combat rice blast.  相似文献   

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Methylmercury (MeHg), a long-lasting organic pollutant, is known to induce cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. Epidemiological studies have suggested that environmental exposure to MeHg is linked to the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). The exact molecular mechanism of MeHg-induced pancreatic β-cell cytotoxicity is still unclear. Here, we found that MeHg (1-4 μM) significantly decreased insulin secretion and cell viability in pancreatic β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells. A concomitant elevation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic events was observed, including decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased proapoptotic (Bax, Bak, p53)/antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) mRNA ratio, cytochrome c release, annexin V-Cy3 binding, caspase-3 activity, and caspase-3/-7/-9 activation. Exposure of RIN-m5F cells to MeHg (2 μM) also induced protein expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related signaling molecules, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein (XBP-1), and caspase-12. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; an ER stress inhibitor) and specific siRNAs for CHOP and XBP-1 significantly inhibited their expression and caspase-3/-12 activation in MeHg-exposed RIN-mF cells. MeHg could also evoke c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 1mM) or 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox; 100 μM) markedly prevented MeH-induced ROS generation and decreased cell viability in RIN-m5F cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with SP600125 (JNK inhibitor; 10 μM) or NAC (1 mM) or transfection with JNK-specific siRNA obviously attenuated the MeHg-induced JNK phosphorylation, CHOP and XBP-1 protein expression, apoptotic events, and insulin secretion dysfunction. NAC significantly inhibited MeHg-activated JNK signaling, but SP600125 could not effectively reduce MeHg-induced ROS generation. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the induction of ROS-activated JNK signaling is a crucial mechanism underlying MeHg-induced mitochondria- and ER stress-dependent apoptosis, ultimately leading to β-cell death.  相似文献   

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The development of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is a valuable long-term strategy to protect the global population from the COVID-19 pandemic complementary to the vaccination. Considering this, the viral main protease (Mpro) is among the most promising molecular targets in light of its importance during the viral replication cycle. The natural flavonoid quercetin 1 has been recently reported to be a potent Mpro inhibitor in vitro, and we explored the effect produced by the introduction of organoselenium functionalities in this scaffold. In particular, we report here a new synthetic method to prepare previously inaccessible C-8 seleno-quercetin derivatives. By screening a small library of flavonols and flavone derivatives, we observed that some compounds inhibit the protease activity in vitro. For the first time, we demonstrate that quercetin (1) and 8-(p-tolylselenyl)quercetin (2d) block SARS-CoV-2 replication in infected cells at non-toxic concentrations, with an IC50 of 192 μM and 8 μM, respectively. Based on docking experiments driven by experimental evidence, we propose a non-covalent mechanism for Mpro inhibition in which a hydrogen bond between the selenium atom and Gln189 residue in the catalytic pocket could explain the higher Mpro activity of 2d and, as a result, its better antiviral profile.  相似文献   

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