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1.
The interactions between the abundant methionine residues ofthe calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM) and severalof its binding targets were probed using fluorescence spectroscopy.Tryptophan steady-state fluorescence from peptides encompassingthe CaM-binding domains of the target proteins myosin lightchain kinase (MLCK), cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE)and caldesmon site A and B (CaD A, CaD B), and the model peptidemelittin showed Ca2+-dependent blue-shifts in their maximumemission wavelength when complexed with wild-type CaM. Blue-shiftswere also observed for complexes in which the CaM methionineresidues were replaced by selenomethionine, norleucine and ethionine,and when a quadruple methionine to leucine C-terminal mutantof CaM was studied. Quenching of the tryptophan fluorescenceintensity was observed with selenomethionine, but not with norleucineor ethionine substituted protein. Fluorescence quenching studieswith added potassium iodide (KI) demonstrate that the non-nativeproteins limit the solvent accessibility of the Trp in the MLCKpeptide to levels close to that of the wild-type CaM–MLCKinteraction. Our results show that the methionine residues fromCaM are highly sensitive to the target peptide in question,confirming the importance of their role in binding interactions.In addition, we provide evidence that the nature of bindingin the CaM–CaD B complex is unique compared with the othercomplexes studied, as the Trp residue of this peptide remainspartially solvent exposed upon binding to CaM.  相似文献   

2.
FTO is an N6-methyladenosine demethylase removing methyl groups from nucleic acids. Several studies indicate the creation of FTO complexes with other proteins. Here, we looked for regulatory proteins recognizing parts of the FTO dioxygenase region. In the Calmodulin (CaM) Target Database, we found the FTO C-domain potentially binding CaM, and we proved this finding experimentally. The interaction was Ca2+-dependent but independent on FTO phosphorylation. We found that FTO–CaM interaction essentially influences calcium-binding loops in CaM, indicating the presence of two peptide populations—exchanging as CaM alone and differently, suggesting that only one part of CaM interacts with FTO, and the other one reminds free. The modeling of FTO–CaM interaction showed its stable structure when the half of the CaM molecule saturated with Ca2+ interacts with the FTO C-domain, whereas the other part is disconnected. The presented data indicate calmodulin as a new FTO interactor and support engagement of the FTO protein in calcium signaling pathways.  相似文献   

3.
Centrins are a family of small, EF hand-containing proteins that are found in all eukaryotes and are often complexed with centrosome-related structures. Since their discovery, centrins have attracted increasing interest due to their multiple, diverse cellular functions. Centrins are similar to calmodulin (CaM) in size, structure and domain organization, although in contrast to CaM, the majority of centrins possess at least one calcium (Ca2+) binding site that is non-functional, thus displaying large variance in Ca2+ sensing abilities that could support their functional versatility. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on centrins from both biophysical and structural perspectives with an emphasis on centrin-target interactions. In-depth analysis of the Ca2+ sensing properties of centrins and structures of centrins complexed with target proteins can provide useful insight into the mechanisms of the different functions of centrins and how these proteins contribute to the complexity of the Ca2+ signaling cascade. Moreover, it can help to better understand the functional redundancy of centrin isoforms and centrin-binding proteins.  相似文献   

4.
Alexandrium pacificum is a typical dinoflagellate that can cause harmful algal blooms, resulting in negative impacts on ecology and human health. The calcium (Ca2+) signal transduction pathway plays an important role in cell proliferation. Calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-related proteins are the main cellular Ca2+ sensors, and can act as an intermediate in the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway. In this study, the proteins that interacted with CaM of A. pacificum were screened by two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis and far western blots under different growth conditions including lag phase and high phosphorus and manganese induced log phase (HPM). The interactive proteins were then identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Four proteins were identified, including Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase, serine/threonine kinase, annexin, and inositol-3-phosphate synthase, which all showed high expression levels under HPM. The gene expression levels encoding these four proteins were also up-regulated under HPM, as revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, suggesting that the identified proteins participate in the Ca2+ transport channel and cell cycle regulation to promote cell division. A network of proteins interacting with CaM and their target proteins involved in the regulation of cell proliferation was raised, which provided new insights into the mechanisms behind the explosive growth of A. pacificum.  相似文献   

5.
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master growth regulator by controlling protein synthesis and autophagy in response to environmental cues. Amino acids, especially leucine and arginine, are known to be important activators of mTORC1 and to promote lysosomal translocation of mTORC1, where mTORC1 is thought to make contact with its activator Rheb GTPase. Although amino acids are believed to exclusively regulate lysosomal translocation of mTORC1 by Rag GTPases, how amino acids increase mTORC1 activity besides regulation of mTORC1 subcellular localization remains largely unclear. Here we report that amino acids also converge on regulation of the TSC2-Rheb GTPase axis via Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM). We showed that the amino acid-mediated increase of intracellular Ca2+ is important for mTORC1 activation and thereby contributes to the promotion of nascent protein synthesis. We found that Ca2+/CaM interacted with TSC2 at its GTPase activating protein (GAP) domain and that a CaM inhibitor reduced binding of CaM with TSC2. The inhibitory effect of a CaM inhibitor on mTORC1 activity was prevented by loss of TSC2 or by an active mutant of Rheb GTPase, suggesting that a CaM inhibitor acts through the TSC2-Rheb axis to inhibit mTORC1 activity. Taken together, in response to amino acids, Ca2+/CaM-mediated regulation of the TSC2-Rheb axis contributes to proper mTORC1 activation, in addition to the well-known lysosomal translocation of mTORC1 by Rag GTPases.  相似文献   

6.
Dysregulation of Ca2+‐binding S100 proteins plays important role in various diseases. The asymmetric complex of Ca2+‐bound S100A4 with nonmuscle myosin IIA has high stability and highly increased Ca2+ affinity. Here we investigated the possible causes of this allosteric effect by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shift‐based secondary‐structure analysis did not show substantial changes for the complex. Backbone dynamics revealed slow‐timescale local motions in the H1 helices of homodimeric S100A4; these were less pronounced in the complex form and might be accompanied by an increase in dimer stability. Different mobilities in the Ca2+‐coordinating EF‐hand sites indicate that they communicate by an allosteric mechanism operating through changes in protein dynamics; this must be responsible for the elevated Ca2+ affinity. These multilevel changes in protein dynamics as conformational adaptation allow S100A4 fine‐tuning of its protein–protein interactions inside the cell during Ca2+ signaling.  相似文献   

7.
Melatonin (MEL) is a pleiotropic indolamine that reaches multiple intracellular targets. Among these, MEL binds to calmodulin (CaM) with high affinity. In presence of Ca2+, CaM binds to CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). The Ca2+-CaM/CaMKII pathway regulates a myriad of brain functions in different cellular compartments. Evidence showing the regulation of this cellular pathway by MEL is scarce. Thus, our main objective was to study the interaction of MEL with CaM and its effects on CaMKII activity in two microenvironments (aqueous and lipidic) naturally occurring within the cell. In addition, colocalization of MEL with CaM in vivo was explored in mice brain hippocampus. In vitro CaM-MEL interaction and the structural conformations of CaM in the presence of this indoleamine were assessed through electrophoretic mobility and isoelectric point. The functional consequence of this interaction was evaluated by measuring CaMKII activity. Ca2+-CaM-MEL increased the activity of CaMKII in aqueous buffer but reduced the kinase activity in lipid buffer. Importantly, MEL colocalizes in vivo with Ca2+-CaM in the hippocampus. Our evidence suggests that MEL regulates the key cellular Ca2+-CaM/CaMKII pathway and might explain why physiological MEL concentrations reduce CaMKII activity in some experimental conditions, while in others it drives biological processes through activation of this kinase.  相似文献   

8.
In the past four decades numerous findings have indicated that gap junction channel gating is mediated by intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+i]) in the high nanomolar range via calmodulin (CaM). We have proposed a CaM-based gating model based on evidence for a direct CaM role in gating. This model is based on the following: CaM inhibitors and the inhibition of CaM expression to prevent chemical gating. A CaM mutant with higher Ca2+ sensitivity greatly increases gating sensitivity. CaM co-localizes with connexins. Connexins have high-affinity CaM-binding sites. Connexin mutants paired to wild type connexins have a higher gating sensitivity, which is eliminated by the inhibition of CaM expression. Repeated trans-junctional voltage (Vj) pulses progressively close channels by the chemical/slow gate (CaM’s N-lobe). At the single channel level, the gate closes and opens slowly with on-off fluctuations. Internally perfused crayfish axons lose gating competency but recover it by the addition of Ca-CaM to the internal perfusion solution. X-ray diffraction data demonstrate that isolated gap junctions are gated at the cytoplasmic end by a particle of the size of a CaM lobe. We have proposed two types of CaM-driven gating: “Ca-CaM-Cork” and “CaM-Cork”. In the first, the gating involves Ca2+-induced CaM activation. In the second, the gating occurs without a [Ca2+]i rise.  相似文献   

9.
In plants, rapid and reversible biological responses to environmental cues may require complex cellular reprograming. This is enabled by signaling molecules such as the cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) cAMP and cGMP, as well as Ca2+. While the roles and synthesis of cAMP and cGMP in plants are increasingly well-characterized, the “off signal” afforded by cNMP-degrading enzymes, the phosphodiesterases (PDEs), is, however, poorly understood, particularly so in monocots. Here, we identified a candidate PDE from the monocot Brachypodium distachyon (BDPDE1) and showed that it can hydrolyze cNMPs to 5′NMPs but with a preference for cAMP over cGMP in vitro. Notably, the PDE activity was significantly enhanced by Ca2+ only in the presence of calmodulin (CaM), which interacts with BDPDE1, most likely at a predicted CaM-binding site. Finally, based on our biochemical, mutagenesis and structural analyses, we constructed a comprehensive amino acid consensus sequence extracted from the catalytic centers of annotated and/or experimentally validated PDEs across species to enable a broad application of this search motif for the identification of similar active sites in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.  相似文献   

10.
ALG-2 (gene name: PDCD6) is a penta-EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein and interacts with a variety of proteins in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. ALG-2 recognizes different types of identified motifs in Pro-rich regions by using different hydrophobic pockets, but other unknown modes of binding are also used for non-Pro-rich proteins. Most ALG-2-interacting proteins associate directly or indirectly with the plasma membrane or organelle membranes involving the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system, coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER-to-Golgi vesicular transport, and signal transduction from membrane receptors to downstream players. Binding of ALG-2 to targets may induce conformational change of the proteins. The ALG-2 dimer may also function as a Ca2+-dependent adaptor to bridge different partners and connect the subnetwork of interacting proteins.  相似文献   

11.
Calmodulin (CaM) is a small protein that acts as a ubiquitous signal transducer and regulates neuronal plasticity, muscle contraction, and immune response. It interacts with ion channels and plays regulatory roles in cellular electrophysiology. CaM modulates the voltage-gated sodium channel gating process, alters sodium current density, and regulates sodium channel protein trafficking and expression. Many mutations in the CaM-binding IQ domain give rise to diseases including epilepsy, autism, and arrhythmias by interfering with CaM interaction with the channel. In the present review, we discuss CaM interactions with the voltage-gated sodium channel and modulators involved in CaM regulation, as well as summarize CaM-binding IQ domain mutations associated with human diseases in the voltage-gated sodium channel family.  相似文献   

12.
Phospholamban (PLN), a key modulator of Ca2+-homeostasis, inhibits sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium-ATPase (SERCA2a) and regulates cardiac contractility. The human PLN mutation R14del has been identified in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients worldwide and is currently extensively investigated. In search of the molecular mechanisms mediating the pathological phenotype, we examined PLN-R14del associations to known PLN-interacting partners. We determined that PLN-R14del interactions to key Ca2+-handling proteins SERCA2a and HS-1-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) were enhanced, indicating the super-inhibition of SERCA2a’s Ca2+-affinity. Additionally, histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC) binding to SERCA2a was increased, suggesting the inhibition of SERCA2a maximal velocity. As phosphorylation relieves the inhibitory effect of PLN on SERCA2a activity, we examined the impact of phosphorylation on the PLN-R14del/SERCA2a interaction. Contrary to PLN-WT, phosphorylation did not affect PLN-R14del binding to SERCA2a, due to a lack of Ser-16 phosphorylation in PLN-R14del. No changes were observed in the subcellular distribution of PLN-R14del or its co-localization to SERCA2a. However, in silico predictions suggest structural perturbations in PLN-R14del that could impact its binding and function. Our findings reveal for the first time that by increased binding to SERCA2a and HAX-1, PLN-R14del acts as an enhanced inhibitor of SERCA2a, causing a cascade of molecular events contributing to impaired Ca2+-homeostasis and arrhythmogenesis. Relieving SERCA2a super-inhibition could offer a promising therapeutic approach for PLN-R14del patients.  相似文献   

13.
14.
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 2 (Fbp2) is a gluconeogenic enzyme and multifunctional protein modulating mitochondrial function and synaptic plasticity via protein-protein interactions. The ability of Fbp2 to bind to its cellular partners depends on a quaternary arrangement of the protein. NAD+ and AMP stabilize an inactive T-state of Fbp2 and thus, affect these interactions. However, more subtle structural changes evoked by the binding of catalytic cations may also change the affinity of Fbp2 to its cellular partners. In this report, we demonstrate that Fbp2 interacts with Co2+, a cation which in excessive concentrations, causes pathologies of the central nervous system and which has been shown to provoke the octal-like events in hippocampal slices. We describe for the first time the kinetics of Fbp2 in the presence of Co2+, and we provide a line of evidence that Co2+ blocks the AMP-induced transition of Fbp2 to the canonical T-state triggering instead of a new, non-canonical T-state. In such a state, Fbp2 is still partially active and may interact with its binding partners e.g., Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2α (Camk2α). The Fbp2-Camk2α complex seems to be restricted to mitochondria membrane and it facilitates the Camk2α autoactivation and thus, synaptic plasticity.  相似文献   

15.
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multisubunit protein complex that intersects the ubiquitin (Ub)–proteasome pathway at several junctions. The CSN associates with several protein kinases that target key regulatory proteins that themselves are targets for Ub-dependent degradation, and several subunits themselves are phosphoproteins. We previously reported that Arabidopsis CSN7 is a phosphoprotein. To identify the kinases responsible for CSN7 phosphorylation, we biochemically purified CSN7-kinsae activities from cauliflower through a four-step purification procedure that resulted in a ca. 300-fold enrichment. One of these activities is Ca2+ dependent, while the second is not. Peptide fingerprint analysis of the purified proteins identified three putative CSN7 kinases.  相似文献   

16.
Dysregulation of the transient receptor canonical ion channel (TRPC1) has been found in several cancer types, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms through which TRPC1 impacts pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell proliferation are incompletely understood. Here, we found that TRPC1 is upregulated in human PDAC tissue compared to adjacent pancreatic tissue and this higher expression correlates with low overall survival. TRPC1 is, as well, upregulated in the aggressive PDAC cell line PANC-1, compared to a duct-like cell line, and its knockdown (KD) reduced cell proliferation along with PANC-1 3D spheroid growth by arresting cells in the G1/S phase whilst decreasing cyclin A, CDK2, CDK6, and increasing p21CIP1 expression. In addition, the KD of TRPC1 neither affected Ca2+ influx nor store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and reduced cell proliferation independently of extracellular calcium. Interestingly, TRPC1 interacted with the PI3K-p85α subunit and calmodulin (CaM); both the CaM protein level and AKT phosphorylation were reduced upon TRPC1 KD. In conclusion, our results show that TRPC1 regulates PDAC cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by interacting with PI3K-p85α and CaM through a Ca2+-independent pathway.  相似文献   

17.
Nano-junctions between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic surfaces of the plasma membrane and other organelles shape the spatiotemporal features of biological Ca2+ signals. Herein, we propose that 2D Ca2+ exchange diffusion on the negatively charged phospholipid surface lining nano-junctions participates in guiding Ca2+ from its source (channel or carrier) to its target (transport protein or enzyme). Evidence provided by in vitro Ca2+ flux experiments using an artificial phospholipid membrane is presented in support of the above proposed concept, and results from stochastic simulations of Ca2+ trajectories within nano-junctions are discussed in order to substantiate its possible requirements. Finally, we analyze recent literature on Ca2+ lipid interactions, which suggests that 2D interfacial Ca2+ diffusion may represent an important mechanism of signal transduction in biological systems characterized by high phospholipid surface to aqueous volume ratios.  相似文献   

18.
Amyloid β1–42 (Aβ(1–42)) oligomers have been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis dysregulation with subsequent alterations of neuronal excitability has been proposed to mediate Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. The Ca2+ binding proteins calmodulin (CaM) and calbindin-D28k, whose expression levels are lowered in human AD brains, have relevant roles in neuronal survival and activity. In previous works, we have shown that CaM has a high affinity for Aβ(1–42) oligomers and extensively binds internalized Aβ(1–42) in neurons. In this work, we have designed a hydrophobic peptide of 10 amino acid residues: VFAFAMAFML (amidated-C-terminus amino acid) mimicking the interacting domain of CaM with Aβ (1–42), using a combined strategy based on the experimental results obtained for Aβ(1–42) binding to CaM and in silico docking analysis. The increase in the fluorescence intensity of Aβ(1–42) HiLyteTM-Fluor555 has been used to monitor the kinetics of complex formation with CaM and with calbindin-D28k. The complexation between nanomolar concentrations of Aβ(1–42) and calbindin-D28k is also a novel finding reported in this work. We found that the synthetic peptide VFAFAMAFML (amidated-C-terminus amino acid) is a potent inhibitor of the formation of Aβ(1–42):CaM and of Aβ(1–42):calbindin-D28k complexes.  相似文献   

19.
This paper describes the production and properties of a hybridprotein comprising the full length of the Xenopus laevis cabnodulin(CaM) sequence, followed, through a gh/cylgh/dne linker, bythe 26-residue CaM-binding region of myosin light-chain kinase(M13). This hybrid molecule appears to have high thermal stability(Tm > 75°C in the presence of Ca2+) as well as unusualCa2+-binding properties: (i) a wide-range biphasic Ca2+-bindingresponse (extending over pCa 4.8-7.4) and (ii) a high apparentbinding constant (pCa50% = 6.3, a 10-fold increase from thatof wild-type CaM). NMR and CD data indicate that the CaM-M13hybrid molecule exists in equilibrium in an approximate 1:1ratio between two major conformations, one of which is similarto the compact globular structure of the CaM-M13 complex [M.Daira,G.M.Clore, A.M.Gronenborn, G.Zhu, C.B.Klee and A.Bax (1992)Science, 256, 632-638] and the other to the dumbbell-like structureof the wild type CaM [Y.S.Babu, C.E.Bugg and W.J.Cook (1988)J. Mol. Biol., 204, 191-204]. The biphasic Ca2+-binding curvecan be interpreted using a linear combination of two Hill bindingcurves with significantly different dissociation constants (2x 10-6 M and 8 x 10-6 M), which can be attributed to the twoconformations in equilibrium. The present study has opened anavenue to engineer proteins with higher Ca2+-binding affinitiesusing the known CaM structures as a template Received April 23, 1993; revised August 5, 1993; accepted August 25, 1993.  相似文献   

20.
Retinal guanylate cyclases (RetGCs) promote the Ca2+-dependent synthesis of cGMP that coordinates the recovery phase of visual phototransduction in retinal rods and cones. The Ca2+-sensitive activation of RetGCs is controlled by a family of photoreceptor Ca2+ binding proteins known as guanylate cyclase activator proteins (GCAPs). The Mg2+-bound/Ca2+-free GCAPs bind to RetGCs and activate cGMP synthesis (cyclase activity) at low cytosolic Ca2+ levels in light-activated photoreceptors. By contrast, Ca2+-bound GCAPs bind to RetGCs and inactivate cyclase activity at high cytosolic Ca2+ levels found in dark-adapted photoreceptors. Mutations in both RetGCs and GCAPs that disrupt the Ca2+-dependent cyclase activity are genetically linked to various retinal diseases known as cone-rod dystrophies. In this review, I will provide an overview of the known atomic-level structures of various GCAP proteins to understand how protein dimerization and Ca2+-dependent conformational changes in GCAPs control the cyclase activity of RetGCs. This review will also summarize recent structural studies on a GCAP homolog from zebrafish (GCAP5) that binds to Fe2+ and may serve as a Fe2+ sensor in photoreceptors. The GCAP structures reveal an exposed hydrophobic surface that controls both GCAP1 dimerization and RetGC binding. This exposed site could be targeted by therapeutics designed to inhibit the GCAP1 disease mutants, which may serve to mitigate the onset of retinal cone-rod dystrophies.  相似文献   

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