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Small extracellular vesicles isolated from urine (uEVs) are increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers. Meanwhile, different uEV preparation strategies exist. Conventionally, the performance of EV preparation methods is evaluated by single particle quantification, Western blot, and electron microscopy. Recently, we introduced imaging flow cytometry (IFCM) as a next-generation single EV analysis technology. Here, we analyzed uEV samples obtained with different preparation procedures using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), semiquantitative Western blot, and IFCM. IFCM analyses demonstrated that urine contains a predominant CD9+ sEV population, which exceeds CD63+ and CD81+ sEV populations. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the storage temperature of urine samples negatively affects the recovery of CD9+ sEVs. Although overall reduced, the highest CD9+ sEV recovery was obtained from urine samples stored at −80 °C and the lowest from those stored at −20 °C. Upon comparing the yield of the different uEV preparations, incongruencies between NTA and IFCM data became apparent. Results obtained by both NTA and IFCM were consistent with Western blot analyses for EV marker proteins; however, NTA results correlated with the amount of the impurity marker uromodulin. Despite demonstrating that the combination of ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography appears as a reliable uEV preparation technique, our data challenge the soundness of traditional NTA for the evaluation of different EV preparation methods.  相似文献   

As extracellular vesicles (EVs) have become a prominent topic in life sciences, a growing number of studies are published on a regular basis addressing their biological relevance and possible applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental question of the true vesicular nature as well as possible influences on the EV secretion behavior have often been not adequately addressed. Furthermore, research regarding endothelial cell-derived EVs (EndoEVs) often focused on the large vesicular fractions comprising of microvesicles (MV) and apoptotic bodies. In this study we aimed to further extend the current knowledge of the influence of pre-isolation conditions, such as cell density and conditioning time, on EndoEV release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We combined fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and the established fluorescence-triggered flow cytometry (FT-FC) protocol to allow vesicle-specific detection and characterization of size and surface markers. We found significant effects of cell density and conditioning time on both abundance and size distribution of EndoEVs. Additionally, we present detailed information regarding the surface marker display on EVs from different fractions and size ranges. Our data provide crucial relevance for future projects aiming to elucidate EV secretion behavior of endothelial cells. Moreover, we show that the influence of different conditioning parameters on the nature of EndoEVs has to be considered.  相似文献   

Along with cytokines, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells in the joint contribute to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. By high-resolution flow cytometry, we characterized 18 surface markers and 4 proinflammatory cytokines carried by EVs of various sizes in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) from individuals with knee OA, with a primary focus on immune cells that play a major role in OA pathogenesis. By multiplex immunoassay, we also measured concentrations of cytokines within (endo) and outside (exo) EVs. EVs carrying HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ were the most enriched subpopulations in SF relative to plasma (25–50-fold higher depending on size), suggesting a major contribution to the SF EV pool from infiltrating immune cells in OA joints. In contrast, the CD34+ medium and small EVs, reflecting hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells, and endothelial cells, were the most significantly enriched subpopulations in plasma relative to SF (7.3- and 7.7-fold higher). Ratios of EVs derived from neutrophils and lymphocytes were highly correlated between SF and plasma, indicating that plasma EVs could reflect OA severity and serve as systemic biomarkers of OA joint pathogenesis. Select subsets of plasma EVs might also provide next generation autologous biological products for intra-articular therapy of OA joints.  相似文献   

Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their RNA cargo are a novel source of biomarkers for various diseases. We aimed to identify the optimal method for isolating small (<200 nm) EVs from human urine prior to small RNA analysis. EVs from filtered healthy volunteer urine were concentrated using three methods: ultracentrifugation (UC); a precipitation-based kit (PR); and ultrafiltration (UF). EVs were further purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). EV preparations were analysed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Western blotting, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and an Agilent Bioanalyzer Small RNA kit. UF yielded the highest number of particles both before and after SEC. Small RNA analysis from UF-concentrated urine identified two major peaks at 10–40 nucleotides (nt) and 40–80 nt. In contrast, EV preparations obtained after UC, PR or SEC combined with any concentrating method, contained predominantly 40–80 nt sized small RNA. Protein fractions from UF+SEC contained small RNA of 10–40 nt in size (consistent with miRNAs). These data indicate that most of the microRNA-sized RNAs in filtered urine are not associated with small-sized EVs, and highlights the importance of removing non-vesicular proteins and RNA from urine EV preparations prior to small RNA analysis.  相似文献   

Stem cells secrete paracrine factors including extracellular vesicles (EVs) which can mediate cellular communication and support the regeneration of injured tissues. Reduced oxygen (hypoxia) as a key regulator in development and regeneration may influence cellular communication via EVs. We asked whether hypoxic conditioning during human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) culture effects their EV quantity, quality or EV-based angiogenic potential. We produced iPSC-EVs from large-scale culture-conditioned media at 1%, 5% and 18% air oxygen using tangential flow filtration (TFF), with or without subsequent concentration by ultracentrifugation (TUCF). EVs were quantified by tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), characterized according to MISEV2018 guidelines, and analyzed for angiogenic potential. We observed superior EV recovery by TFF compared to TUCF. We confirmed hypoxia efficacy by HIF-1α stabilization and pimonidazole hypoxyprobe. EV quantity did not differ significantly at different oxygen conditions. Significantly elevated angiogenic potential was observed for iPSC-EVs derived from 1% oxygen culture by TFF or TUCF as compared to EVs obtained at higher oxygen or the corresponding EV-depleted soluble factor fractions. Data thus demonstrate that cell-culture oxygen conditions and mode of EV preparation affect iPSC-EV function. We conclude that selecting appropriate protocols will further improve production of particularly potent iPSC-EV-based therapeutics.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous in size (30 nm–10 µm), content (lipid, RNA, DNA, protein), and potential function(s). Many isolation techniques routinely discard the large EVs at the early stages of small EV or exosome isolation protocols. We describe here a standardised method to isolate large EVs from medulloblastoma cells and examine EV marker expression and diameter using imaging flow cytometry. Our approach permits the characterisation of each large EVs as an individual event, decorated with multiple fluorescently conjugated markers with the added advantage of visualising each event to ensure robust gating strategies are applied. Methods: We describe step-wise isolation and characterisation of a subset of large EVs from the medulloblastoma cell line UW228-2 assessed by fluorescent light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tunable resistance pulse sensing (TRPS). Viability of parent cells was assessed by Annexin V exposure by flow cytometry. Imaging flow cytometry (Imagestream Mark II) identified EVs by direct fluorescent membrane labelling with Cell Mask Orange (CMO) in conjunction with EV markers. A stringent gating algorithm based on side scatter and fluorescence intensity was applied and expression of EV markers CD63, CD9 and LAMP 1 assessed. Results: UW228-2 cells prolifically release EVs of up to 6 µm. We show that the Imagestream Mark II imaging flow cytometer allows robust and reproducible analysis of large EVs, including assessment of diameter. We also demonstrate a correlation between increasing EV size and co-expression of markers screened. Conclusions: We have developed a labelling and stringent gating strategy which is able to explore EV marker expression (CD63, CD9, and LAMP1) on individual EVs within a widely heterogeneous population. Taken together, data presented here strongly support the value of exploring large EVs in clinical samples for potential biomarkers, useful in diagnostic screening and disease monitoring.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been described as important mediators of cell communication, regulating several physiological processes, including tissue recovery and regeneration. In the kidneys, EVs derived from stem cells have been shown to support tissue recovery in diverse disease models and have been considered an interesting alternative to cell therapy. For this purpose, however, several challenges remain to be overcome, such as the requirement of a high number of EVs for human therapy and the need for optimization of techniques for their isolation and characterization. Moreover, the kidney’s complexity and the pathological process to be treated require that EVs present a heterogeneous group of molecules to be delivered. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the use of EVs as a therapeutic tool for kidney diseases. Moreover, we give an overview of the new technologies applied to improve EVs’ efficacy, such as novel methods of EV production and isolation by means of bioreactors and microfluidics, bioengineering the EV content and the use of alternative cell sources, including kidney organoids, to support their transfer to clinical applications.  相似文献   

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive liver disease for which there is no effective medical therapy. PSC belongs to the family of immune-mediated biliary disorders and it is characterized by persistent biliary inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we explored the possibility of using extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to target liver inflammation and reduce fibrosis in a mouse model of PSC. Five-week-old male FVB.129P2-Abcb4tm1Bor mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 100 µL of EVs (± 9.1 × 109 particles/mL) or PBS, once a week, for three consecutive weeks. One week after the last injection, mice were sacrificed and liver and blood collected for flow cytometry analysis and transaminase quantification. In FVB.129P2-Abcb4tm1Bor mice, EV administration resulted in reduced serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bile acid (BA), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as in decreased liver fibrosis. Mechanistically, we observed that EVs reduce liver accumulation of both granulocytes and T cells and dampen VCAM-1 expression. Further analysis revealed that the therapeutic effect of EVs is accompanied by the inhibition of NFkB activation in proximity of the portal triad. Our pre-clinical experiments suggest that EVs isolated from MSCs may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to treat patients suffering from PSC.  相似文献   

The demonstration that spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) can confer strong disease resistance, bypassing the laborious and time-consuming transgenic expression of double-stranded (ds)RNA to induce the gene silencing of pathogenic targets, was ground-breaking. However, future field applications will require fundamental mechanistic knowledge of dsRNA uptake, processing, and transfer. There is increasing evidence that extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate the transfer of transgene-derived small interfering (si)RNAs in host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) applications. In this study, we establish a protocol for barley EV isolation and assess the possibilities for EVs regarding the translocation of sprayed dsRNA from barley (Hordeum vulgare) to its interacting fungal pathogens. We found barley EVs that were 156 nm in size, containing predominantly 21 and 19 nucleotide (nts) siRNAs, starting with a 5′-terminal Adenine. Although a direct comparison of the RNA cargo between HIGS and SIGS EV isolates is improper given their underlying mechanistic differences, we identified sequence-identical siRNAs in both systems. Overall, the number of siRNAs isolated from the EVs of dsRNA-sprayed barley plants with sequence complementarity to the sprayed dsRNA precursor was low. However, whether these few siRNAs are sufficient to induce the SIGS of pathogenic target genes requires further research. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that EVs may not be mandatory for the spray-delivered siRNA uptake and induction of SIGS.  相似文献   

Elucidation of the biological functions of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their potential roles in physiological and pathological processes is an expanding field of research. In this study, we characterized USC–derived EVs and studied their capacity to modulate the human immune response in vitro. We found that the USC–derived EVs are a heterogeneous population, ranging in size from that of micro–vesicles (150 nm–1 μm) down to that of exosomes (60–150 nm). Regarding their immunomodulatory functions, we found that upon isolation, the EVs (60–150 nm) induced B cell proliferation and IgM antibody secretion. Analysis of the EV contents unexpectedly revealed the presence of BAFF, APRIL, IL–6, and CD40L, all known to play a central role in B cell stimulation, differentiation, and humoral immunity. In regard to their effect on T cell functions, they resembled the function of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)–derived EVs previously described, suppressing T cell response to activation. The finding that USC–derived EVs transport a potent bioactive cargo opens the door to a novel therapeutic avenue for boosting B cell responses in immunodeficiency or cancer.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid vesicles released by either any prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell, or both, with a biological role in cell-to-cell communication. In this work, we characterize the proteomes and nanomechanical properties of EVs released by tissue-culture cell-derived trypomastigotes (mammalian infective stage; (TCT)) and epimastigotes (insect stage; (E)) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. EVs of each stage were isolated by differential centrifugation and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Measurements of zeta-potential were also included. Results show marked differences in the surface molecular cargos of EVs between both stages, with a noteworthy expansion of all groups of trans-sialidase proteins in trypomastigote’s EVs. In contrast, chromosomal locations of trans-sialidases of EVs of epimastigotes were dramatically reduced and restricted to subtelomeric regions, indicating a possible regulatable expression of these proteins between both stages of the parasite. Regarding mechanical properties, EVs of trypomastigotes showed higher adhesion compared to the EVs of epimastigotes. These findings demonstrate the remarkable surface remodeling throughout the life cycle of T. cruzi, which shapes the physicochemical composition of the extracellular vesicles and could have an impact in the ability of these vesicles to participate in cell communication in completely different niches of infection.  相似文献   

The development of malignant effusions such as ascites reflects a massive progression of a malignant disease. In patients with ovarian carcinoma, a high amount of ascites (>500 mL) is an independent negative prognostic marker. The composition and constituents of ascites reflect the inflammatory environment of the underlying tumor. Increased cellular resistance of ascites-derived tumor cells and the development of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are major risks for these patients, especially in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. In this study, we discuss the release of tissue factor-bearing extracellular vesicles (TF+ EVs) from tumor cells into the environment (ascites fluid) and their systemic spreading as a possible causal explanation of the pathologic coagulation status in these patients. We obtained ascites from patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma, collected during surgery or therapeutic paracentesis (n = 20). Larger ectosome-like EVs were isolated using sequential centrifugation, quantified by high-resolution flow cytometry and analyzed using nanoparticle tracking analysis. Furthermore, the pro-coagulant properties (TF activity) of EVs were determined. Compared to published TF activities of EVs from healthy persons, TF activities of EVs derived from ascites of patients with ovarian cancer were very high, with a median of 80 pg/mL. The rate of VTE, as reported in the patient files, was high as well (35%, 7 out of 20). Furthermore, all but one patient with VTE had EV concentrations above the median within their ascetic fluid (p < 0.02). Since VTE continues to be a frequent cause of death in cancer patients, prophylactic antithrombotic treatment might be worth considering in these patients. However, given the risk of bleeding, more clinical data are warranted. Although the study is too small to enable reaching a conclusion on direct clinical implementation, it can well serve as a proof of principle and a rationale to initiate a prospective clinical study with different patient subgroups. We also show ex vivo that these larger ectosome-like EVs induce intracellular ERK phosphorylation and tumor cell migration, which is not directly related to their pro-coagulative potency, but might help to understand why cancer patients with thromboembolic events have a poorer prognosis.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EV) deliver cargoes such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids between cells and serve as an intercellular communicator. As it is revealed that most of the functions associated to EVs are closely related to the immune response, the important role of EVs in inflammatory diseases is emerging. EVs can be functionalized through EV surface engineering and endow targeting moiety that allows for the target specificity for therapeutic applications in inflammatory diseases. Moreover, engineered EVs are considered as promising nanoparticles to develop personalized therapeutic carriers. In this review, we highlight the role of EVs in various inflammatory diseases, the application of EV as anti-inflammatory therapeutics, and the current state of the art in EV engineering techniques.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have an important role in mediating intercellular signaling in inflammation and affect the kinetics of wound healing, however, an understanding of the mechanisms regulating these responses remains limited. Therefore, we have focused on the use of cutaneous injury models in which to study the biology of EVs on the inflammatory phase of wound healing. For this, the foreign body response using sterile subcutaneous polyvinylalcohol (PVA) sponges is ideally suited for the parallel analysis of immune cells and EVs without the need for tissue dissociation, which would introduce additional variables. We have previously used this model to identify mediators of EV biogenesis, establishing that control of how EVs are made affects their payload and biological activity. These studies in normal mice led us to consider how conditions such as immunodeficiency and obsesity affect the profile of immune cells and EVs in this model using genetically defined mutant mice. Since EVs are intrinsically heterogenous in biological fluids, we have focused our studies on a novel technology, vesicle flow cytometry (vFC) to quantify changes in EVs in mouse models. Here, we show that myeloid-derived immune cells and EVs express proteins relevant in antigen presentation in PVA sponge implants that have distinct profiles in wildtype, immune-deficient (NOD scid) vs. diabetic (Leprdb) mice. Together, these results establish a foundation for the parallel analysis of both immune cells and EVs with technologies that begin to address the heterogeneity of intercellular communication in the wound bed.  相似文献   

Cell-free therapy using extracellular vesicles (EVs) from adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (ASCs) seems to be a safe and effective therapeutic option to support tissue and organ regeneration. The application of EVs requires particles with a maximum regenerative capability and hypoxic culture conditions as an in vitro preconditioning regimen has been shown to alter the molecular composition of released EVs. Nevertheless, the EV cargo after hypoxic preconditioning has not yet been comprehensively examined. The aim of the present study was the characterization of EVs from hypoxic preconditioned ASCs. We investigated the EV proteome and their effects on renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro. While no effect of hypoxia was observed on the number of released EVs and their protein content, the cargo of the proteins was altered. Proteomic analysis showed 41 increased or decreased proteins, 11 in a statistically significant manner. Furthermore, the uptake of EVs in epithelial cells and a positive effect on oxidative stress in vitro were observed. In conclusion, culture of ASCs under hypoxic conditions was demonstrated to be a promising in vitro preconditioning regimen, which alters the protein cargo and increases the anti-oxidative potential of EVs. These properties may provide new potential therapeutic options for regenerative medicine.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently been isolated from different plants. Plant-derived EVs have been proposed as potent therapeutics and drug-delivery nanoplatforms for delivering biomolecules, including proteins, RNAs, DNAs, and lipids. Herein, Petasites japonicus-derived EVs (PJ-EVs) were isolated through a series of centrifugation steps and characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Immunomodulatory effects of PJ-EVs were assessed using dendritic cells (DCs). PJ-EVs exhibited a spherical morphology with an average size of 122.6 nm. They induced the maturation of DCs via an increase in the expression of surface molecules (CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II), production of Th1-polarizing cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12p70), and antigen-presenting ability; however, they reduced the antigen-uptake ability. Furthermore, maturation of DCs induced by PJ-EVs was dependent on the activation and phosphorylation of MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Notably, PJ-EV-treated DCs strongly induced the proliferation and differentiation of naïve T cells toward Th1-type T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells along with robust secretion of IFN-γ and IL-2. In conclusion, our study indicates that PJ-EVs can be potent immunostimulatory candidates with an ability of strongly inducing the maturation of DCs.  相似文献   

Pregnancy is a unique situation of physiological immunomodulation, as well as a strong Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease modulator whose mechanisms are still unclear. Both maternal (decidua) and fetal (trophoblast) placental cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are known to mediate cellular communication and modulate the maternal immune response. Their contribution to the MS disease course during pregnancy, however, is unexplored. Here, we provide a first phenotypic and functional characterization of EVs isolated from cultures of term placenta samples of women with MS, differentiating between decidua and trophoblast. In particular, we analyzed the expression profile of 37 surface proteins and tested the functional role of placental EVs on mono-cultures of CD14+ monocytes and co-cultures of CD4+ T and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Results indicated that placental EVs are enriched for surface markers typical of stem/progenitor cells, and that conditioning with EVs from samples of women with MS is associated to a moderate decrease in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by activated monocytes and in the proliferation rate of activated T cells co-cultured with Tregs. Overall, our findings suggest an immunomodulatory potential of placental EVs from women with MS and set the stage for a promising research field aiming at elucidating their role in MS remission.  相似文献   

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a family of particles/vesicles present in blood and body fluids, composed of phospholipid bilayers that carry a variety of molecules that can mediate cell communication, modulating crucial cell processes such as homeostasis, induction/dampening of inflammation, and promotion of repair. Their existence, initially suspected in 1946 and confirmed in 1967, spurred a sharp increase in the number of scientific publications. Paradoxically, the increasing interest for EV content and function progressively reduced the relevance for a precise nomenclature in classifying EVs, therefore leading to a confusing scientific production. The aim of this review was to analyze the evolution of the progress in the knowledge and definition of EVs over the years, with an overview of the methodologies used for the identification of the vesicles, their cell of origin, and the detection of their cargo. The MISEV 2018 guidelines for the proper recognition nomenclature and ways to study EVs are summarized. The review finishes with a “more questions than answers” chapter, in which some of the problems we still face to fully understand the EV function and potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool are analyzed.  相似文献   

Genetic characteristics of blood donors may impact the storability of blood products. Despite higher basal stress, red blood cells (RBCs) from eligible donors that are heterozygous for beta-thalassemia traits (βThal+) possess a differential nitrogen-related metabolism, and cope better with storage stress compared to the control. Nevertheless, not much is known about how storage impacts the proteome of membrane and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in βThal+. For this purpose, RBC units from twelve βThal+ donors were studied through proteomics, immunoblotting, electron microscopy, and functional ELISA assays, versus units from sex- and aged-matched controls. βThal+ RBCs exhibited less irreversible shape modifications. Their membrane proteome was characterized by different levels of structural, lipid raft, transport, chaperoning, redox, and enzyme components. The most prominent findings include the upregulation of myosin proteoforms, arginase-1, heat shock proteins, and protein kinases, but the downregulation of nitrogen-related transporters. The unique membrane proteome was also mirrored, in part, to that of βThal+ EVs. Network analysis revealed interesting connections of membrane vesiculation with storage and stress hemolysis, along with proteome control modulators of the RBC membrane. Our findings, which are in line with the mild but consistent oxidative stress these cells experience in vivo, provide insight into the physiology and aging of stored βThal+ RBCs.  相似文献   

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