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1.
Dexterity in human hand is connected with the fingertip rolling ability. In this work we consider rolling motion of spherical robotic fingertips as one of the control objectives together with the set point position control and force trajectory tracking. The generation of a rolling motion trajectory is proposed and a control solution is designed which achieves prescribed transient and steady state tracking behavior. The proposed control law is structurally and computationally simple and does not utilize the dynamics of the robot model or its approximation. A simulation of a five degrees of freedom robot show excellent contact rolling performance even at cases of adverse friction conditions while alternative controllers lead to contact sliding. Experiments with a KUKA LWR4 + are performed to validate the proposed method.  相似文献   

2.
This paper presents the design optimization of a total knee replacement (TKR) using a parametric three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, considering wear of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) insert. A framework has been developed to generate three-dimensional FE models of the femoral component and UHMWPE insert of a TKR design in a batch mode process, then simulate an ISO standard TKR wear test. A modified version of Archard’s wear model calculates abrasive wear as a function of contact pressure, sliding distance and an experimentally determined wear factor. The UHMWPE wear was reduced by modifying the contact geometry of both components in the frontal and sagittal planes. Wear was reduced by 18.5%, from 55.248 to 45.013 mm3 per year by reducing the radii of curvature of the femoral condyles in the sagittal planes, increasing the radii in the frontal plane, and reducing conformity between the implant components.  相似文献   

3.
弓网系统中滑板磨耗大及电力机车受流不稳定是制约我国电气化铁路向高速、重载、安全、稳定运行方向发展的一个关键问题,亟待采取有效的措施进行解决。在特定的载流、滑动速度条件下,表征滑板磨损快慢的滑板磨耗率随法向载荷增大呈现出先减小后增大的“U”型变化趋势,而表征载流稳定性的载流稳定系数随法向载荷增大而逐渐减小,因此选择合适的法向载荷可使滑板磨耗和载流稳定性均达到相对最佳。通过使用浸金属碳滑板与铜导线进行对磨实验,得到了不同实验条件下滑板磨耗率和载流稳定系数的大量实验数据。以此建立了以法向载荷、载流和滑动速度为输入量,以滑板磨耗率、载流稳定系数为输出量的BP神经网络非线性模型,进而利用遗传算法优化了相关参数,并在特定的载流和滑动速度条件下,采用基于粒子群算法的多目标优化方法,确定了滑板磨耗率最低、载流稳定系数最小的最佳法向载荷对应的非劣解。  相似文献   

4.
The evolution of wear at sidewall surfaces of polysilicon microelectromechanical systems was investigated in high vacuum under controlled normal load and sliding speed conditions. The static adhesion force was used as an indicator of the changes in wear characteristics occurring during oscillatory sliding contact. Measurements of the static adhesion force as a function of sliding cycles and scanning electron microscopy observations of micromachines from the same batch process subjected to nominally identical testing conditions revealed two distinctly different tribological patterns, namely, low-adhesion/high-wear behavior and high-adhesion/low-wear behavior. The static adhesion force and wear behavior were found to be in direct correlation with the micromachine operational lifetime. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy yielded insight into the origin, microstructure, and composition of wear debris and agglomerates adhered onto the sliding surfaces. Results demonstrate a strong dependence of micromachine operational life on the removal of the native oxide film and the organic monolayer coating as well as the formation of agglomerates consisting of organic coating material and wear debris.  相似文献   

5.
王文瑾  马静 《测控技术》2019,38(12):83-87
为了满足国内新研航空发动机磨损故障预测及健康管理研究要求,国内研究机构开展了油液在线式磨粒传感器的研究及测试。针对航空发动机油液磨粒传感器暂无准确量值、多参数组合的专业测试条件,提出了一种将精密直线运动控制与振动环境相结合的无介质测试平台技术方案,模拟发动机中润滑油流经传感器的运动状态并给出实验结果。实验结果表明该测试平台能够有效地应用于磨粒传感器的参数测试和性能探究,为航空发动机故障预测类传感器的技术研究提供了一种新的测试验证手段。  相似文献   

6.
为提高鼓式制动器在热-应力耦合影响下磨损计算的准确性,考虑实际制动过程中温度升高对制动器性能的影响,通过增加温度与磨损率的变化关系修正传统Archard磨损模型,对某型装甲车鼓式制动器进行仿真计算.分析结果表明,在热-应力有限元迭代求解过程中,采用完全耦合法持续更新制动器磨损面的几何形状可以不断地修正热-应力的计算结果,因此能更真实地描述制动过程中热-应力-磨损的复杂耦合现象.仿真得到制动器在4种典型工况下的磨损规律,为制动器的优化设计提供依据.  相似文献   

7.
Friction and wear are the most serious problems for micromotors in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In the paper, a linear-sliding wear model of the contact between the rotor bushing and the ground plane is presented to describe the wear and a corresponding simplified method is proposed to simulate the wearing process. The effects of geometry parameters, material properties and applied operating conditions on the evolution of dimensional and volumetric wear rates and frictional torques are explored for normally loaded rotating rotor bushing sliding on the ground plane. A hemispherical-bushing-on-ground-plane configuration finite element model (FEM) is set up and the implementation of the contact task based on ANSYS and the contact element approach is introduced to provide the numerical simulations acted as a guide to solution of the contact problems in micromotors. Numerical simulations and results of the wear rates, frictional torques, contact stresses and contact pressure are studied and the effects of roughness, material properties, geometry parameters and FEM mesh of the bushing and the ground plane are discussed. It is indicated that the nonlinear effects cannot be ignored and the results should not be used to predict the absolute wear lifetime whereas surface engineering, lower wear materials and rational designs for micromotors in MEMS should be applied to bring the friction and wear behaviors into the acceptable regimes.  相似文献   

8.
The aim of this paper is to correlate the deterioration process of a production system with the items control process and, as a consequence, with the equipment inspection policy. The objective is to consider how the wear of the manufacturing system influences the values of the control process parameters and how these parameters have to be changed in accordance with the need to maintain optimal (working) conditions. Adopting a Weibull failure-time distribution, it is shown how these parameters must be changed (at different times t ) in order to maintain optimal working conditions. To test the inspection model, a weighted cost function dependent on the time loss for the production of defective units and for the production shut-down (in order to make an inspection to control the state of the system) is developed.  相似文献   

9.
A global quasi‐sliding mode control (GQSMC) scheme is introduced to ensure zigzag motion with a smaller bound than that offered by Gao's method and to provide disturbance rejection throughout the entire response in discrete time. The design of an augmented forcing function is followed by three conditions in discrete time extended from global sliding mode control (GSMC) in continuous time. Furthermore, we adopt a switching gain, which is auto‐tuned as a function of sliding surface s(k), such that chattering phenomena can be considerably alleviated during the steady‐state, significantly reducing switching control applied to the plant. The proposed GQSMC scheme can provide more advantages such as an even distribution of the control input throughout the entire response and an improvement in the accuracy and speed of the desired performance, guaranteeing a quasi‐sliding mode throughout the entire response. In addition, we also consider the input disturbance rejection according to the norm‐bounded exogenous signal. Results from both the simulation and the experiments are reported. The results further verify that we can use the global sliding surface to curtail reaching the phase stage.  相似文献   

10.
 Based on the boundary element method (BEM) and a variational principle, a numerical model is developed to analyze the time – transient sliding contact of two layered elastic/plastic solids. Two cases are considered: one is the loading/sliding/unloading of a rough surface on a smooth surface, and the other is of two rough surfaces. Contact statistics, contact pressure profile and stress distribution are predicted at each time step with updated surface roughness. The results are used to study the effect of surface roughness, physical properties of the layer and the substrate, and lubricant film thickness on friction, stiction, and wear. Discussion on the integration of this contact model into advanced tribological models, e.g., wear model, is also presented. Received: 28 June 2002/Accepted: 23 October 2002 Currently at: Seagate Technology, Pittsburgh, PA Paper presented at the 13th Annual Symposium on Information Storage and Processing Systems, Santa Clara, CA, USA, 17–18 June, 2002  相似文献   

11.
梁建海 《测控技术》2018,37(8):66-70
直升机大球铰摆动、滑动磨损试验机可以真实地模拟大球铰在直升机上的运转和受载荷状态.试验机测控系统主要解决运动模式和力加载的协调运动,设计关键算法解决了任意更换滑动行程、滑动频率和摆动角、摆动频率的4个参数对运动曲线的拟合问题,生成3个缸的位置时域序列,解决了任意方向力加载的难点,模拟大球铰受力情况,实现了大球铰在不同飞行状态下运动和受载荷的自动运行.通过合理的硬件设计和软件开发,其自动化程序高、界面友好、运行稳定,为直升机大球铰疲劳磨损试验数据的准确性和可靠性提供了保证.  相似文献   

12.

The creep and wear of ultra-high-weight polyethylene hip prostheses under physiological conditions are studied in the present research work. A fully integrated contact-coupled dynamic model based upon multibody dynamics methodology is developed, allowing the evaluation of not only sliding distance, but also contact mechanics as well as cross-shear effects and both average pressure and in-service duration associated with the creep phenomenon. In vivo forces and motions of hip joint are used as input for the dynamic simulation, which result in more realistic contact point trajectory and contact pressure, and consequently wear and creep, compared to simplified inputs. The analysis also takes into account inertia forces due to hip motion, tribological properties of bearing bodies, and energy loss owing to contact-impact events. The principal molecular orientation (PMO) of the polyethylene cup is determined through an iterative algorithm and dynamic outcomes. Archard’s wear law is also integrated into the multibody dynamics model for wear prediction in hip implants. Creep, besides wear, is attributed to polyethylene damage, which is investigated by implementing a creep model extracted from experimental data. The model is validated using clinical data and numerical results available from previously published studies. It is shown that creep plays a significant role in hip damage along with wear, both of which can be influenced by hip parameters, e.g., hip and clearance sizes. Moreover, the creep mechanism according to creep experiment is discussed, and contributing factors to the wear phenomenon are analyzed throughout this study.

  相似文献   

13.
In this paper, we are concerned with a two-competition model described by a reaction–diffusion system with nonlocal delays which account for the drift of individuals to their present position from their possible positions at previous times. By using the iterative technique recently developed in Wang et al. (2006) [14], the sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling wave solutions connecting the semi-trivial steady state to the coexistence steady state of the considered system. When the domain is bounded, we investigate the global attractivity of the coexistence steady state of the system under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions as well. The approach used is the upper–lower solutions and monotone iteration technique.  相似文献   

14.
We present a molecular dynamics (MD) model system to quantitatively study nanoscopic wear of rough surfaces under two-body and three-body contact conditions with multiple abrasive particles. We describe how to generate a surface with a pseudo-random Gaussian topography which is periodically replicable, and we discuss the constraints on the abrasive particles that lead to certain wear conditions. We propose a post-processing scheme which, based on advection velocity, dynamically identifies the atoms in the simulation as either part of a wear particle, the substrate, or the sheared zone in-between. This scheme is then justified from a crystallographic order point of view. We apply a distance-based contact zone identification scheme and outline a clustering algorithm which can associate each contact atom with the abrasive particle causing the respective contact zone. Finally, we show how the knowledge of each atom’s zone affiliation and a time-resolved evaluation of the substrate topography leads to a break-down of the asperity volume reduction into its components: the pit fill-up volume, the individual wear particles, the shear zone, and the sub-surface substrate compression. As an example, we analyze the time and pressure dependence of the wear volume contributions for two-body and three-body wear processes of a rough iron surface with rigid spherical and cubic abrasive particles.  相似文献   

15.
有载分接开关(OLTC)在不中断电流的情况下通过改变绕组电压比来调节变压器的输出电压。作为电力变压器中唯一需要机械动作的部件,它的故障率一直居高不下。因此,OLTC的建模和状态监测对电力系统的正常运行具有重要意义。先研究了有载分接开关触点劣化机制,分析了引发触点接触电阻异常的典型原因,结果表明触点劣化会引起接触电阻的增...  相似文献   

16.
This study deals with modeling the flank wear of cryogenically treated AISI M2 high speed steel (HSS) tool by means of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approach. Cryogenic treatment has recently been found to be an innovative technique to improve wear resistance of AISI M2 HSS tools but precise modelling approach which also incorporates the cryogenic soaking temperature to simulate the tool flank wear is still not reported in any open literature. In order to obtain data for developing the ANFIS model, turning of hot rolled annealed steel stock (C-45) by cryogenically treated tools treated at various cryogenic soaking temperatures was performed in steady state conditions while varying the cutting speed and cutting time. The model combined modeling function of fuzzy inference with the learning ability of artificial neural network; and a set of rules has been generated directly from experimental data. It was determined that the predictions usually agreed well with the experimental data with correlation coefficients of 0.994 and mean errors of 2.47%. The proposed model can also be used for estimating tool flank wear on-line but the accuracy of the model depends upon the proper training and selection of data points.  相似文献   

17.
This paper investigates the sliding mode control (SMC) problem for a class of discrete-time nonlinear networked Markovian jump systems (MJSs) in the presence of probabilistic denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. The communication network via which the data is propagated is unsafe and the malicious adversary can attack the system during state feedback. By considering random Denial-of-Service attacks, a new sliding mode variable is designed, which takes into account the distribution information of the probabilistic attacks. Then, by resorting to Lyapunov theory and stochastic analysis methods, sufficient conditions are established for the existence of the desired sliding mode controller, guaranteeing both reachability of the designed sliding surface and stability of the resulting sliding motion. Finally, a simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sliding mode control algorithm.   相似文献   

18.
Dynamic Analysis Tool for Legged Robots   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The paper introduces a systematic approach for dealing with legged robot mechanism analysis. First, we briefly summarize basic mathematical tools for studying the dynamics of these multi-loop and parallel mechanisms using a unified spatial formulation which is useful for computer algorithms. The dynamic behavior analysis is based on two stages. The first one deals with establishing the equations of motion of the whole mechanism including legs tip impact effects and allowing us to solve the direct and inverse dynamic problems. The second concerns the feet–ground interaction aspect which is one of the major problem in the context of dynamic simulation for walking devices. We focus on the phenomenon of contact by introducing a general model for dynamic simulation of contacts between a walking robot and ground. This model considers a force distribution and uses an analytical form for each force depending only on the known state of the robot system. Finally, some simulation results of biped robot are given. The simulation includes all phenomena that may occur during the locomotion cycle: impact, transition from impact to contact, contact during support with static friction, transition from static to sliding friction and sliding friction.  相似文献   

19.
The problem of sliding mode control (SMC) is investigated for a class of uncertain switched systems subject to unmeasurable state and assigned finite (possible short) time constraint. A key issue is how to ensure the finite-time boundedness (FTB) of system state during reaching phase and sliding motion phase. To this end, a state observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured states. And then, a state estimate-based SMC law is designed such that the state trajectories can be driven onto the specified integral sliding surface during the assigned finite time interval. By means of partitioning strategy, the corresponding FTB over reaching phase and sliding motion phase are guaranteed and the sufficient conditions are derived via average dwell time technique. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the proposed method.  相似文献   

20.
抛物型分布参数系统的变结构控制   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
本文研究抛物型分布参数控制系统的变结构控制问题,在较文[4]更一般的条件下,首先证明了等效控制法对于研究无限维变结构系统的有效性,得到了系统的滑动方程式,并讨论了滑动模的稳定性条件;然后研究了热加工等实际问题中出现的抛物型分布参数系统的滑动模设计,解决了文[4]中提出的问题。  相似文献   

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