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This paper investigates the heat flux profile upon building facade with side wall constraints due to ejected fire plumes from a window of an under-ventilated compartment fire. A reduced-scale model (1:8), consisting of a cubic fire compartment with a facade wall attached and two side walls located symmetrically at both sides of the window is developed. The window dimensions and the side wall distances are changed in experiments, representing different ventilations and constraints on fire plume entrainment. Five heat flux gauges are employed in measurement of vertical heat flux profile upon the facade wall. Results show that with the decrease in separation distance of side walls, the heat flux increases for small windows where dimensionless excess heat release rate Q̇ex1.3 (“(half) axisymmetric fire” regime), meanwhile shows weak dependency on side wall separation distance for large windows where Q̇ex<1.3 (“wall fire” regime). A new global formula is proposed to characterize the vertical profile of heat flux based on Lee’s model without side walls as further modified by a parameter K in relation to the separation distance of side walls and characteristic length scales of the window. Experimental data for different windows and side wall separation distances are well collapsed by the proposed formula.  相似文献   

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《Soils and Foundations》2022,62(6):101240
The one-dimensional (1D) large strain consolidation (LSC) of saturated soft materials that are deposited at very low-density usually exhibit time-variant compressibility (void ratio vs vertical effective stress (e-σv)) relation. The 1D column-like model test serves as an effective approach for characterizing this consolidation characteristic if all the physical parameters (including the settlement rate, pore pressure and density) are measured. Unfortunately, the density measurement is not always realistic due to its high cost (e.g., with X-rays) and the time-effect must be roughly neglected by using an average compressibility relation. This can further lead to erroneous estimations of the materials’ permeability (k) relation (permeability vs void ratio (k-e)) in the LSC analysis. This paper presents two modifications on two conventional equations for compressibility and permeability, respectively. The first one describes the compressibility curve’s movement in the lne-lnσv plane, and the other quantifies the ratio between the permeability calibrated by neglecting time-effect and its true value. These modifications originate from deep comparative analyses of several physical parameters between the column test and numerical prediction. Meanwhile, a simple hand-calculation procedure is proposed to estimate the new constants.  相似文献   

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《Building and Environment》2006,41(5):557-567
In literature, local mean age of air is used as an important index to evaluate indoor air quality in ventilated rooms. In this research, a data-based mechanistic approach is used to model the spatial–temporal mass distribution in an imperfectly mixed forced ventilated installation. A first-order transfer function model has proved to be sufficiently good in describing the mass transfer dynamics (Rt2=0.987) of the system. Furthermore, it was possible to fully understand the physical meaning of the model parameter. The parameter is found to be an inverse of the age of air. This Data-Based Modelling approach proved to be more robust when dealing with measurement noise. Finally, the modelled age of air was validated with a classical step up determination of the age of air for experimental data. Good correlation (Rt2=0.77) was found between both results, which proved the physical background of the model parameter.  相似文献   

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Base flow and storm flow events from a small, urbanized Mediterranean river located in the South of France were studied to evaluate net fluxes from the continent to the coastal sea water. Considered variables were: pH, conductivity, redox potential, temperature, dissolved O2, SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter), Cl?, NO3?, SO42?, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon), Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the dissolved fraction and POC (Particulate Organic Carbon), Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the particulate fraction. If rainfall intensity and antecedent rainfall history were sufficient to explain many observed variations, the patterns of particles and solutes transport greatly varied from one storm event to another. SPM, POC, particulate Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb had similar behavior characterized by an immediate increase at the beginning of the storm flow and the highest values at the first high discharge peak. Among dissolved species, Cl?, SO42?, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ had a behavior very similar one to the other. They exhibited high concentrations and enrichment factors at the beginning of the storm flow, due to fast leaching of highly labile species. Their concentrations decreased during posterior discharge peaks but positive enrichment factors indicated permanent sources for these ions. DOC, K+ and NO3? had different behaviors which indicated sources positively correlated with rainfall intensity. A 3D-fluorescence study showed that the humified organic matter contribution to DOC increased during storm flow. Relationships between DOC and dissolved Cu and Pb indicated differences in organic-matter binding properties between dry and humid periods. Storm flow were responsible for more than 90% of the annual output to the sea of SPM, POC and particulate Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb and more than 70% for dissolved Pb, Cd, NO3? and DOC. For the other dissolved species, outputs were balanced between base flow and storm flow. Contrary to what was observed in large rivers, organic carbon was mainly transported in the POC fraction. The average specific fluxes of Cu and Pb to the sea were 3.8 and 3.4 kg km?2 y?1, respectively, of the same order of magnitude than specific fluxes of other North-Mediterranean rivers, but outputs were more intense during shorter durations. The extrapolation of the Eygoutier River data to the Mediterranean non-desert coastline showed that the order of magnitude of Cu and Pb annually brought to the sea by the whole of small anthropized coastal rivers can be similar to the annual input by the Rhône or the Po River.  相似文献   

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The effect of temperature on the shearing response of saturated, dense sand was investigated using a series of temperature-controlled, isotropically-consolidated, hollow cylinder triaxial compression tests, where specimens were heated in drained conditions followed by shearing in undrained conditions. As expected, the deviatoric stress at the peak state (i.e., the undrained shear strength) was observed to increase with increasing initial mean effective stress. However, it was observed to decrease linearly with increasing temperature. The effects of temperature on the deviatoric stress at the peak state were attributed to a linear increase in the magnitude of negative shear-induced pore water pressure at the peak state with temperature. The relationship between the undrained shear strength and the pore water pressure with changes in temperature was represented well by linear equations. When the shear strength was interpreted in terms of the critical state, no obvious changes in the critical state line in the p-q plane were observed, and the critical state friction angle was unaffected by temperature. During drained heating, the dense sand specimens were observed to expand volumetrically, causing the normal consolidation line in the e-p/pa0.5 plane to shift upward with increasing temperature without a change in the slope. The negative pore water pressure during undrained shearing caused the state paths of the dense sand specimens to move to the right. As the magnitude of negative pore water pressure increased with increasing temperature, no obvious effects on the critical state line in the e-p/pa0.5 plane were observed.  相似文献   

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In the present study,unconfined compressive strength(q_u)values of two lime-treated soils(soil 1 and 2)with curing times of 28 d,90 d and 360 d were optimized.The influence of void/lime ratio was represented by the porosity/volumetric lime content ratio(η/L_(iv))as the main parameter.η/L_(iv) represents the volume of void influenced by compaction effort and lime volume.The evolution of qu was analyzed for each soil using the coefficient of determination as the optimization parameter.Aiming at providing adjustments to the mechanical resistance values,the η/L_(iv) parameter was modified to η/L_(iv)~C using the adjustment exponent C(to make q_u-η/L_(iv) variation rates compatible).The results show that with the decrease of η/L_(iv)~C.qu increases potentially and the optimized values of C were 0.14-0.18.The mechanical resistance data show similar trends between q_u and η/L_(iv)~C for the studied silty soil-ground lime mixtures,which were cured at ambient temperature(23±2)℃ with different curing times of 28—360 d.Finally,optimized equations were presented using the normalized strengths and the proposed optimization model,which show 6% error and 95% acceptability on average.  相似文献   

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