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Since grapevine ( Vitis spp .) rootstock material is being traded increasingly as disbudded woody material a lack of distinctive morphological features on such material necessitates an alternative and reliable means of identification. Methods described here were developed for rapid and efficient extraction of DNA from woody samples rich in phenolic compounds and polysaccharides, and for subsequent identification of varieties by RAPD PCR. Using these methods, and with the application of only one selected RAPD primer, we were able to differentiate sixteen rootstock varieties, including the seven varieties most commonly used in Germany. Problems commonly encountered with reproducibility of RAPD patterns were avoided by choosing primers with a dinucleotide sequence and a high G/C content that allowed a rather high annealing temperature of 45°C. Methods described here should also be useful for other horticultural crops, especially those with woody tissues rich in phenolic compounds and polysaccharides.  相似文献   

The characterization of the aromatic profile of several apricot cultivars with molecular tracers in order to obtain objective data concerning the aromatic quality of this fruit was undertaken using headspace–solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME). Six apricot cultivars were selected according to their organoleptic characteristics: Iranien, Orangered, Goldrich, Hargrand, Rouge du Roussillon and A4025. The aromatic intensity of these varieties measured by HS–SPME–Olfactometry were defined and classified according to the presence and the intensity of grassy, fruity and apricot like notes. In the six varieties, 23 common volatile compounds were identified by HS–SPME–GC–MS. Finally, 10 compounds, ethyl acetate, hexyl acetate, limonene, β-cyclocitral, γ-decalactone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, β-ionone, menthone and (E)-hexen-2-al were recognized by HS–SPME–GC–O as responsible of the aromatic notes involved in apricot aroma and considered as molecular tracers of apricot aromatic quality which could be utilized to discriminate apricot varieties.  相似文献   

A 9% whey protein (WP) isolate solution at pH 7.0 was heat-denatured at 80°C for 30 min. Size-exclusion HPLC showed that native WP formed soluble aggregates after heat-treatment. Additions of CaCl2 (10–40 mM), NaCl (50–400 mM) or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL, 0.4–2.0%, w/v) or hydrolysis by a protease from Bacillus licheniformis caused gelation of the denatured solution at 45°C. Textural parameters, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of the gels so formed changed markedly with concentration of added salts or pH by added GDL. Maximum gel hardness occurred at 200 mM NaCl or pH 4.7. Increasing CaCl2 concentration continuously increased gel hardness. Generally, GDL-induced gels were harder than salt-induced gels, and much harder than the protease-induced gel.  相似文献   

The advent of the functional barrier concept in food packaging has brought with it a requirement for fast tests of permeation through potential barrier materials. In such tests it would be convenient for both foodstuffs and materials below the functional barrier (sub-barrier materials) to be represented by standard simulants. By means of inverse gas chromatography, liquid paraffin spiked with appropriate permeants was considered as a potential simulant of sub-barrier materials based on polypropylene (PP) or similar polyolefins. Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of low molecular weight model permeants (octene, toluene and isopropanol) from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 μm-thick oriented PP) into the food simulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. These permeation results were interpreted in terms of three permeation kinetic models regarding the solubility of a particular model permeant in the post-barrier medium (i.e. the food simulant). The results obtained justify the development and evaluation of liquid sub-barrier simulants that would allow flexible yet rigorous testing of new laminated multilayer packaging materials.  相似文献   

The levels of bisphenol-F-diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) were quantified as part of a European survey on the migration of residues of epoxy resins into oil from canned fish. The contents of BFDGE in cans, lids and fish collected from all 15 Member States of the European Union and Switzerland were analysed in 382 samples. Cans and lids were separately extracted with acetonitrile. The extraction from fish was carried out with hexane followed by re-extraction with acetonitrile. The analysis was performed by reverse phase HPL C with fluorescence detection. BFDGE could be detected in 12% of the fish, 24% of the cans and 18% of the lids. Only 3% of the fish contained BFDGE in concentrations considerably above 1mg/kg. In addition to the presented data, a comparison was made with the levels of BADGE (bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether)analysed in the same products in the context of a previous study.  相似文献   

The European Commission's, Quality of Life Research Programme, Key Action 1—Health, Food & Nutrition is mission-oriented and aims, amongst other things, at providing a healthy, safe and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer confidence in the safety of European food. Its objectives also include the enhancing of the competitiveness of the European food supply. Key Action 1 is currently supporting a number of different types of European collaborative projects in the area of risk analysis. The objectives of these projects range from the development and validation of prevention strategies including the reduction of consumers risks; development and validation of new modelling approaches; harmonization of risk assessment principles, methodologies, and terminology; standardization of methods and systems used for the safety evaluation of transgenic food; providing of tools for the evaluation of human viral contamination of shellfish and quality control; new methodologies for assessing the potential of unintended effects of genetically modified (genetically modified) foods; development of a risk assessment model for Cryptosporidium parvum related to the food and water industries; to the development of a communication platform for genetically modified organism, producers, retailers, regulatory authorities and consumer groups to improve safety assessment procedures, risk management strategies and risk communication; development and validation of new methods for safety testing of transgenic food; evaluation of the safety and efficacy of iron supplementation in pregnant women; evaluation of the potential cancer-preventing activity of pro- and pre-biotic ('synbiotic') combinations in human volunteers. An overview of these projects is presented here.  相似文献   

为研究低温带皮菜籽粕微粉的不同粒级部分的功能特性,以经低温脱脂的带皮菜籽粕为原料,经微粉碎后筛分成212~425μm、150~212μm和106~150μm的3个不同粒级的微粉样品,检测这些样品的吸水性、吸油性、乳化性和乳化稳定性、蛋白质体外消化率。结果表明:1 3个不同粒级的微粉样品之间的粗纤维含量存在显著差异,表明三者的结构组成成分有一定差异。23个微粉样品的乳化活性和乳化稳定性随粒度级别的减小而显著增加(P0.01)。33个微粉样品的蛋白质体外消化率随粒度级别的减小而显著增加(P0.01)。4不同粒级带皮菜籽粕微粉样品的吸水性与吸油性受其结构组成物质不同和粒度的双重影响,与粒度的相关性不明显。  相似文献   

Microbiology of food taints   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Fresh and processed foods are often spoilt by the presence of undesirable flavours and odours caused by microbial action. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of microbiologically induced taints that occur in a wide range of foodstuffs, including meats, poultry, fish, crustaceans, milk, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, cereals and cereal products. Examples have been chosen where the compounds responsible for the taint have been identified and sufficient data obtained to demonstrate the involvement of microorganisms. However, in some cases the full identity of the causative organism may not have been elucidated. The types of microorganisms covered by this review include bacteria, fungi, yeasts, actinomycetes and cyanobacteria. Although cyanobacteria do not in general infect foods, their presence in aqueous systems and water supplies can lead to off-flavours in aquatic organisms and processed foodstuffs. Several examples of each of these processes are discussed. Wherever possible, the likely biosynthetic pathway used by the microorganism to produce the offending compound in a foodstuff is indicated.  相似文献   

This paper describes the first part of a project undertaken to develop mussel reference materials for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins. Two interlaboratory studies were undertaken to investigate the performance of the analytical methodology for several PSP toxins, in particular saxitoxin (STX) and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin (dc-STX) in lyophilized mussels, and to set criteria for the acceptance of results to be applied during the second part of the project: the certification exercise. In the first study, 18 laboratories were asked to measure STX and dc-STX in rehydrated lyophilized mussel material and to identify as many other PSP toxins as possible with a method of their choice. In the second interlaboratory study, 15 laboratories were additionally asked to determine quantitatively STX and dc-STX in rehydrated lyophilized mussel and in a saxitoxin-enriched mussel material. The first study revealed that three out of four postcolumn derivatization methods and one pre-column derivatization method sufficed in principle to determine STX and dc-STX. Most participants (13 of 18) obtained acceptable calibration curves and recoveries. Saxitoxin was hardly detected in the rehydrated lyophilized mussels and results obtained for dc-STX yielded a CV of 58% at a mass fraction of 1.86 mg/kg. Most participants (14 out of 18) identified gonyautoxin-5 (GTX-5) in a hydrolysed extract provided. The first study led to provisional criteria for linearity, recovery and separation. The second study revealed that 6 out of 15 laboratories were able to meet these criteria. Results obtained for dc-STX yielded a CV of 19% at a mass fraction of 3.49mg/kg. Results obtained for STX in the saxitoxin-enriched material yielded a CV of 19% at a mass fraction of 0.34mg/kg. Saxitoxin could not be detected in the PSP-positive material. Hydrolysis was useful to confirm the identity of GTX5 and provided indicative information about C1 and C2 toxins in the PSP-positive material. The methods used in the second interlaboratory study showed sufficiently consistent analysis results to undertake a certification exercise to assign certified values for STX and dc-STX in lyophilized mussel.  相似文献   

Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for organic residues which could be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. initiators and catalysts). A wide range of polymers was extracted with solvents and the extracts analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The overwhelming majority of substances identified were not derived from aids to polymerization but were oligomers, additives and adventitious contaminants. However, a small number of substances were identified as initiator residues. These included tetramethylsuccinonitrile (TMSN) which was observed in two polymers and it derived from recombination of two azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator radicals. Methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, biphenyl and phenyl benzoate were detected in one poly(methyl methacrylate) sample and in two polyvinylchlorides and they are thought to be derived from benzoyl peroxide initiator. TMSN was subsequently targeted for analysis of poly-(methyl methacrylate) plastics using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1  相似文献   

Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of different medium molecular weight model permeants: bisphenol A, warfarin and anthracene, from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 microns-thick orientated polypropylene--OPP) into the food simulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. The characterization of permeation kinetics generally observed the permeation models previously reported to explain the experimental permeation results obtained for a low molecular weight group of model permeants. In general, the model permeants exhibited behaviour consistent with their relative molecular weights with respect to (a) the time taken to attain steady-state permeation into the food simulant in which they were more soluble, (b) their subsequent steady-state permeation rates, and (c) their partition between liquid paraffin and the OPP membrane.  相似文献   

This paper describes the second part of a project undertaken to develop certified mussel reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. In the first part two interlaboratory studies were undertaken to investigate the performance of the analytical methodology for several PSP toxins, in particular saxitoxin and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin in lyophilized mussels, and to set criteria for the acceptance of results to be applied during the certification exercise. Fifteen laboratories participated in this certification study and were asked to measure saxitoxin and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin in rehydrated lyophilized mussel material and in a saxitoxin-enriched mussel material. The participants were allowed to use a method of their choice but with an extraction procedure to be strictly followed. The study included extra experiments to verify the detection limits for both saxitoxin and decarbamoyl-saxitoxin. Most participants (13 of 15) were able to meet all the criteria set for the certification study. Results for saxitoxin.2HCl yielded a certified mass fraction of <0.07 mg/kg in the rehydrated lyophilized mussels. Results obtained for decarbamoyl-saxitoxin.2HCl yielded a certified mass fraction of 1.59+/-0.20 mg/kg. The results for saxitoxin.2HCl in enriched blank mussel yielded a certified mass fraction of 0.48 +/- 0.06 mg/kg. These certified reference materials for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in lyophilized mussel material are the first available for laboratories to test their method for accuracy and performance.  相似文献   

正Nowadays,textile enterprises are all taking efforts in transformation and upgrading,like improving producing capacity and optimizing production structure to face market downturn.It claimed a higher request to the standard of textile equipments.In the upcoming of ITMA ASIA+CITME 2014exhibition,this magazine have interviewed several branch associations and a series of relative enterprises,to summarize industrial developing status  相似文献   

In the English section of this issue, 〈China Paper Newsletters〉 will introduce "National Development and Reform Commission Issued Announcement for Selection of Major Preliminary Research Projects for the '13th Five-Year Plan'", "2013 Annual Report of China's Paper Industry", and news of projects and other policies.  相似文献   

On December 27t", 2013, the Ministry of Environmenta Protection announced that, in order to implement "The Environmental Protection Law of the People' s Republic of China", improve the working system in environmenta protection technologies, and promote technologica advancement in pollution prevention, the Ministry of Environmental Protection sponsored the formulation of three guiding technical documents including "Feasible Technology Guidelines for Pollution Prevention and Contro n Wood Pulping Process of the Paper Industry (Trial)"  相似文献   

正On April 29th,2014,Intelli-Tissue EcoEc tissue machine supplied by PMP Group successfully put into operation at Hebei Xuesong Paper Co.,Ltd.,this is the first such kind of paper machine of PMP Group in China.  相似文献   

On November 30th, 2013, the completion and operation ceremony of the third phase of Dongshun Industrial Park was held in the Dongshun Industrial Park, Dongping Economic Development Zone, Shandong  相似文献   

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