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Composite gels were prepared from 2% myofibrillar protein (MP) with 10% imbedded pre-emulsified plant oils (olive and peanut) of various particle sizes at 0.6 M NaCl, pH 6.2. Dynamic rheological testing upon temperature sweeping (20-70 °C at 2 °C/min) showed substantial increases in G′ (elastic modulus) of MP sols/gels with the addition of emulsions, and the G′ increases were inversely related to the emulsion droplet size. Furthermore, gels containing emulsified olive oil had a greater (P < 0.05) hardness than those containing emulsified peanut oil. Regardless of oil types, MP-coated oil droplets exhibited stronger reinforcement of MP gels than Tween 80-stablized oil droplets; the latter composite gels had considerable syneresis. Light microscopy with paraffin sectioning revealed a stable gel structure when filled with protein-coated oil droplets, compared to gels with Tween 80-treated emulsions that showed coalesced oil droplets. These results suggest that rheological characteristics, hardness, texture, and water-holding capacity of MP gels were influenced by type of oils, the nature of the interfacial membrane, and the size of emulsion droplets.  相似文献   

为开发低脂肪多纤维的健康肉制品,明确膳食纤维添加对肉制品品质的影响,以猪肉肌原纤维蛋白为研究对象,利用单因素分析法研究肌原纤维蛋白热诱导凝胶性质及小麦麸膳食纤维对猪肉肌原纤维蛋白功能特性的影响。结果表明:肌原纤维蛋白变性聚集的温度范围是40~70 ℃;肌原纤维蛋白凝胶硬度和保水性随肌原纤维蛋白质量浓度增加而增大,当质量浓度到达70 mg/mL时,凝胶硬度和保水性趋于稳定;pH值为5.5时肌原纤维蛋白凝胶硬度达到最大,凝胶保水性在pH 7.0时趋于稳定;离子强度为0.6 mol/L时凝胶的硬度和保水性趋于稳定。随着小麦麸膳食纤维添加量的增加,肌原纤维蛋白乳化性有所升高但是不明显,当添加量为5%时,乳化性增加7.4%,肌原纤维蛋白乳化稳定性降低;蛋白的弹性模量增大;凝胶硬度和保水性提高,添加量为4%时变化趋于平缓。随着膳食纤维粒径的减小,肌原纤维蛋白凝胶硬度和保水性逐渐提高;微观结构更加致密;蛋白弹性模量降低。由此可见,膳食纤维能够明显改变肌原纤维蛋白功能特性,通过在肉制品中添加适量的膳食纤维可以明显改良肉制品的风味,并替代脂肪,减少人体热量的摄入。  相似文献   

将蜡制玉米淀粉、酯化蜡制玉米淀粉和交联酯化蜡制玉米淀粉以添加量分别为0%、2%、4%、6%、8%、10%添加到肌原纤维蛋白中,形成蛋白淀粉复合物,研究3?种淀粉对肌原纤维蛋白凝胶保水性、质构特性、白度值、表面疏水性、流变特性和微观结构的影响。结果表明,相比纯肌原纤维蛋白,淀粉均能显著提高复合凝胶的保水性、硬度和弹性(P<0.05),且随添加量的增加而显著增加(P<0.05),但在添加量为10%时,各指标上升不显著(P>0.05),其中交联酯化蜡制玉米淀粉效果最好;3?种淀粉均能增加复合凝胶的白度值,但交联酯化蜡制玉米淀粉的添加会使复合凝胶的白度值过大(P<0.05),对色泽不利;同时,淀粉能显著提高复合蛋白的表面疏水性和凝胶的弹性模量(P<0.05),且随着添加量的增加而显著增加(P<0.05),与肌原纤维蛋白凝胶相比,复合凝胶结构趋于致密均匀。在实验的3?种淀粉中,除色泽因素外,交联酯化蜡制玉米淀粉提高凝胶性能的效果要优于其他两种淀粉。?  相似文献   

Locust bean gum (LBG) and cellulose microfibers (CMFs) in an interpenetrating hydrogel were developed as a bioink for 3D printing. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy revealed the intermolecular interactions of the constituent polymers, especially in the matrix containing 3–5% LBG. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the relatively high thermal stability of the hydrogels. Flow behavior index, viscoelasticity, and gel strength increased as LBG increased from 1–5% in the matrix. As expected, for a 3D printed construct from an interpenetrating hydrogel of 1% CMFs with 4% LBG, the highest conformity to the designed 3D model was obtained when it was printed at a 50% infill density and a 10 mm/s printing speed, with a 0.8 mm nozzle diameter and 0.4 mm layer height. In addition, the CMFs with 4% LBG hydrogel maintained high shape stability until 6 h after printing. Therefore, CMFs/LBG-based hydrogels are expected to be useful as a bioink.Industrial relevanceInterpenetrating network hydrogels produced from natural polysaccharides have attracted the attention of the food and biomedical industries because of their good mechanical properties and non-toxicity. In particular, utilization of legal food ingredients such as cellulose and locust bean gum might be valuable. 3D printing can ease the fabrication of complex structures using interpenetrating network bioinks, facilitating accuracy, reproducibility, and throughput, to produce customized food and biomedical products.  相似文献   

The effect of gellan (1.6–0.2%) to gelatin (0–1.4%) ratio and calcium ion concentration (0–30 mM) on the textural properties and turbidity of gellan/gelatin mixed gels was examined using instrumental Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and spectrophotometry. Hardness of the mixed gels decreased as the proportion of gellan decreased. Hardness increased with increasing calcium ions until calcium concentration reached a critical level, after which further increases in calcium resulted in a reduction of hardness. Brittleness, springiness and cohesiveness were very sensitive to low levels of added calcium (0–10 mM), but less sensitive to higher calcium concentrations and gellan/gelatin ratio. In general, the addition of calcium ions caused gels to be more brittle and less cohesive and springy. Decreasing gellan to gelatin ratio caused an increase in gel turbidity at lower calcium ion levels (2–4 mM) and a decrease in turbidity at high calcium levels (20–30 mM). Maximum turbidity was observed in 0.6% gellan–1.0% gelatin gels without added calcium. The results of this study suggested a weak positive interaction between gellan and gelatin when no calcium was added, whereas at higher calcium levels gellan formed a continuous network and gelatin a discontinuous phase.  相似文献   

Correlations between instrumental texture, sensory texture and sweetness perception were studied in whey protein concentrate (WPC) gels at different pH (4 and 7), sucrose (0–40%, w/w) and whey protein (10–20% w/w) content. The presence of sucrose modified the structure of WPC gels, mainly at pH 4, making the gel structure more homogeneous and with smaller pores. Sucrose also increased the solid behaviour of gels, their water holding capacity, hardness and adhesiveness. Sweetness perception decreased as protein concentration increased, and was higher in gels at pH 4 than in gels at pH 7. A good correlation was obtained between the instrumental and sensory attributes hardness, cohesiveness and elasticity.  相似文献   

ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine how oxidatively induced protein cross-linking would influence the gelation properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) under meat processing conditions. MP suspensions in 0.6 M NaCl at pH 6 were treated with an iron-catalyzed oxidizing system (IOS: 10 μM FeCl3, 0.1 mM ascorbic acid, 0.05 to 5 mM H2O2) or a H2O2-activated metmyoglobin oxidizing system (MOS: 0.01 to 0.1 mM metmyoglobin/H2O2) that produced hydroxyl radical and ferryl species, respectively. Both oxidizing systems promoted MP thermal gelation, which was evidenced by rapid protein–protein interaction and the enhancement in storage modulus (elasticity) of the gel network as revealed by dynamic rheological testing in the 20 to 74 °C temperature range. This gelation-enhancing effect was attributed to the shift of myosin aggregation in the early stage of heating from predominantly head–head association (nonoxidized control samples) to prevalently tail–tail cross-linking through disulfide bonds. However, both hardness and water-holding capacity of chilled gels tended to decline when MP was exposed to ≥1 mM H2O2 in IOS and to all concentrations of metmyoglobin in MOS. Microscopic examination confirmed a more porous structure in oxidized gels when compared with nonoxidized protein gels. The results demonstrated that mild oxidation altered the mode of myosin aggregation in favor of an elastic gel network formation, but it did not improve or had a negative effect on water-binding properties of MP gels. Practical Application: Mild oxidation promotes protein network formation and enhances gelation of myofibrillar protein under normal salt and pH conditions used in meat processing. This oxidative effect, which involves disulfide linkages, is somewhat similar to that in bakery product processing where oxidants are used to improve dough performance through gluten protein interaction.  相似文献   

Mangang  Wu  Youling L.  Xiong  Jie  Chen  Xueyan  Tang  Guanghong  Zhou 《Journal of food science》2009,74(4):E207-E217
ABSTRACT:  The objective of the study was to investigate the role of emulsified fat (lard) and oil (peanut oil) in the rheology and microstructure of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) gels. Heat-induced composite gels were prepared from 2% MP with 0% to 15% pre-emulsified lipids at 0.6 M NaCl, pH 6.2. Dynamic rheological testing upon temperature sweeping (20 to 80 °C at 2 °C/min) showed substantial increases in G ' (an elastic modulus) of MP sols/gels with the addition of emulsions. Gel hardness was markedly enhanced ( P < 0.05) by incorporating ≥10% emulsions, and the composite gel with 15% lard was 33% more rigid ( P < 0.05) than that with 15% peanut oil. Incorporation of both emulsions at 10% or higher levels improved the water holding capacity of the gels by 28% to 44% ( P < 0.05). Light microscopy revealed a compact gel structure filled with protein-coated fat/oil globules that interacted with the protein matrix via disulfide bonds. The results indicated that both physical and chemical forces contributed to the enhancements in the rheology, moisture retention, and lipid stabilization in the MP–emulsion composite gels.  相似文献   

Heat‐induced gelling properties of barramundi minced muscle with 1.5% and 2% added salt were assessed after application of pressures at 300, 400 and 500 MPa at 4 °C (initial temperature) for 10 min and subsequent cooking at 90 °C for 30 min. Whiteness, gel‐forming ability, water‐holding capacity, hardness and springiness of the barramundi gels increased as applied pressure and salt concentration increased. At 2% salt concentration, high‐pressure treatment results in barramundi gels with higher gel strength, mechanical properties and smoother texture as compared to conventional heat‐induced gels (0.1 MPa, 90 °C for 30). At a reduced salt concentration (1.5%) and pressure ≥ 400 MPa, the quality (gel strength, water‐holding capacity, hardness and springiness) of pressurised cooked gels is comparable to those heat‐induced gels with 2% added salt, but the microstructure is smoother. Scanning electron microscope images of pressurised cooked gels showed dense and compact network with smoother surface than those of heat‐only‐induced gels. Thus, application of high‐pressure treatment prior to cooking could be an effective method to enable reduced salt concentration in barramundi gels.  相似文献   

To investigate the effects of pre-oxidized myofibrillar protein (MP) on stability of heat-induced MP gelation throughout 28 days of refrigeration, a hydroxyl radical generating system (10 μM FeCl3, 0.1 mM ascorbic acid, with 10 mM H2O2) was employed. Results demonstrated that an increase of carbonyl content followed a similar trend in both pre-oxidized and non-oxidized protein gels. Unexpectedly, pre-oxidized protein gels yielded increased (P < 0.05) hardness at 14 days of storage compared to the initial day of storage. The water holding capacity (WHC) had a significant positive correlation with gel hardness, percentage of immobile water, and T22, while having a negative correlation with carbonyl group content and T23 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the pre-oxidation treatment increases the susceptibility of MP gel matrices to undergo oxidation and thus provides a better comprehension of the consequences that in vitro pre-oxidation treatments have on protein matrix systems.  相似文献   

以肌原纤维蛋白(myofibrillar protein,MP)为研究对象,以羟自由基作为模拟氧化体系,探究氧化条件下不同浓度L-精氨酸(L-Arg,1、3、5?mmol/L和10?mmol/L)对MP结构及凝胶性能的调控。经不同浓度L-Arg及氧化体系处理后,通过巯基(—SH)及内源色氨酸荧光分析MP构象变化;利用粒径、十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,SDS-PAGE)及溶解度分析MP交联聚集情况;采用流变仪、质构仪及扫描电镜等分析MP凝胶性能;通过拉曼光谱分析MP凝胶二级结构。结果表明:氧化条件下L-Arg对MP结构及凝胶性能的调控具有显著的浓度依赖性:当L-Arg添加量为1~5?mmol/L时,对巯基损失有一定的保护作用,而10?mmol/L时,巯基显著降低。L-Arg的添加使内源色氨酸荧光强度降低、粒度增大,SDS-PAGE分析表明氧化诱导二硫键的形成引起蛋白质交联聚集加剧,进而导致溶解度降低。随添加量增加,MP凝胶微观结构更致密,凝胶强度和白度逐渐降低,但凝胶得率逐渐升高。因此,在氧化条件下,当L-Arg添加量为5?mmol/L时,巯基显著增加,蒸煮损失及凝胶强度显著降低,对肉蛋白的氧化稳定性、肉制品的嫩度和持水性有一定的改善作用。  相似文献   

分别采用空气冻结、浸渍冻结和超声辅助浸渍冻结(ultrasonic-assisted immersion freezing,UIF)猪肉背最长肌,提取肌原纤维蛋白(myofibrillar protein,MP)并分析其乳化活性与乳化稳定性、乳液粒径、流变特性、凝胶强度、蒸煮损失率、水分分布与微观形貌变化,研究不同冻结...  相似文献   

研究添加不同质量分数(0%、0.125%、0.25%、0.5%和1%)的脱乙酰魔芋葡甘聚糖(deacetylated konjac glucomannan,DKGM)对猪肉肌原纤维蛋白(myofibrillar protein,MP)结构和凝胶性能的影响,通过分析其凝胶强度、保水性、水分分布、微观结构和凝胶分子力的变化,探究DKGM对MP凝胶特性的影响机制。结果表明,MP凝胶强度随着DKGM质量分数的增加而增大,添加量为0.25%时达到峰值,是对照组的1.55倍;DKGM的加入可以减缓水的流动性,从而提高凝胶持水力;冷场扫描电子显微镜观察发现添加DKGM可以促进凝胶形成更为均匀致密的网络结构;结构和作用力分析表明适量添加DKGM可以促进MP分子的展开和疏水基团的暴露,增加活性巯基的含量,诱导更多α-螺旋向β-折叠转变,增强MP凝胶的疏水相互作用和二硫键,从而改善MP凝胶强度和持水力。  相似文献   

The effects of chicken myofibrillar protein (MP) concentrations (20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) on MP oxidation and the subsequent effects on water holding capacity (WHC) of heat-induced gels were investigated. MP oxidation stressed by a hydroxyl radical-generating system (10 µM FeCl3, 0.1 mM ascorbic acid, and 1 mM H2O2) was evaluated by carbonyl content. Water distribution, microstructure visualization, free sulfhydryl (FSH) groups and molecular forces of the gels were determined to illustrate the effects on WHC. Compared to the non-stressed group, the stressed proteins were highly oxidized where the carbonyl content (p?<?0.01) increased with decreasing MP concentrations (increased by 24.67% at 20 mg/mL). As the MP concentrations were decreased, the percentage of immobile water (decreased by 8.01% at 20 mg/mL, while increased by 5.98% at 60 mg/mL), ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and FSH groups (p?<?0.05) of the oxidized gels were decreased, the gel network of the oxidized groups was impaired which was with more cracks and protein aggregates, the hydrophobic interactions (increased by 24% at 20 mg/mL) and the percentage of free water (p?<?0.05) (increased by 7.80% at 20 mg/mL, but decreased by 6.13% at 60 mg/mL) of the oxidized gels were enhanced, and the resultant WHC was reduced (decreased by 17.75 and 8.07% at 20 and 40 mg/mL, respectively, but increased by 8.54% at 60 mg/mL). The results indicated that the MP concentration could be a potential influencing factor that affected the protein oxidation and subsequently affected the WHC of gels.  相似文献   

蛋白氧化所引起的功能特性改变会进一步影响食品品质,为确定氧化对银鲳肌肉蛋白功能特性及其凝胶品质的影响,本研究模拟羟自由基氧化,研究银鲳肌原纤维蛋白氧化后溶解性及乳化特性,凝胶保水性、质构、色差及其微观结构的变化。结果表明,银鲳肌原纤维蛋白的溶解度、乳化活性及其乳化稳定性与氧化体系中的氧化剂(H_2O_2)浓度有关,3个指标在低浓度H_2O_2组中氧化1 h时均达到最高值,而在高浓度H_2O_2组中随着氧化时间的延长均呈下降趋势。在氧化过程中,肌原纤维蛋白凝胶保水性、硬度及弹性呈先上升后下降趋势,色差L*值呈下降趋势,而b*值呈上升趋势。凝胶微观结构表明,在低浓度H_2O_2组中氧化3 h后,肌原纤维蛋白形成的凝胶结构紧密、交联度较高;在高浓度H_2O_2组中,氧化初期肌原纤维蛋白颗粒聚集成致密的网络结构,5 h后凝胶网状结构则完全被破坏。羟自由基对银鲳肌原纤维蛋白的适度氧化可以改善其蛋白功能及凝胶品质,但过度的氧化会导致蛋白变性凝聚,降低肌肉品质。  相似文献   

Soy protein isolate (SPI) gels emulsified with oils including soybean, olive, palm, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were prepared by a microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). The hardness of 10% SPI gel was greatly increased by adding higher amount of oils. The emulsion gels prepared with 10% SPI and 30% olive oil showed the highest hardness of 1,711 g. In the gelation with various oil content (5–30%), the higher concentration of oils indicated the drastic increase of elastic modulus G′ and viscous modulus G″ during initial gelation for 7 min. The G′ value of SPI emulsion gel showed the 150 (soybean oil 30%), 147 (olive oil 30%), 121 (palm oil 30%), and 61 Pa (EPA 25%), respectively. In the color value of SPI emulsion gel, addition of higher concentration of oils resulted in the increase of L value (brightness), indicating 99.14 (L value) at 30% palm oil. The micro-structure of SPI emulsion gel entrapped with various oils showed the homogeneous network with small porosity compared with that of SPI gel without oil. In particular, SPI emulsion gel with 10% palm oil showed the compact structure distributed evenly with small porosity. Conclusively, the functional and rheological properties of SPI emulsion gel produced by catalytic action of MTGase could be modulated by the type and content of oils fortified.  相似文献   

通过改变凝胶形成的环境条件,对明胶-肌原纤维蛋白(myofibrillar prote in,MP)混合凝胶的质构和流变特性进行了研究。结果表明:MP浓度和明胶浓度对其本身凝胶质构特性有显著的影响。少量添加明胶降低了混合凝胶的硬度,但却改善了凝胶的弹性;明胶添加量的变化对硬度和模能量G’的影响较大,而对弹性的影响较小;混合凝胶的硬度随着pH增加而逐渐增加,而G’逐渐减小;影响混合凝胶硬度和弹性的主次因素依次为,明胶和MP浓度比、pH、离子强度。  相似文献   

研究了利用坛紫菜与大豆蛋白所制备的共混凝胶的质地。结果表明,当配方中坛紫菜含量从17%增加20%时,共混凝胶的硬度、咀嚼性和最大剪切硬度值均显著(p<0.05)提高,而弹性显著(p<0.05)降低。当配方中含有20%的坛紫菜和34%的大豆分离蛋白时,所制备的共混凝胶在硬度、咀嚼性和最大剪切硬度值方面最优;利用该配方制备的共混凝胶在硬度和弹性上低于某市售火腿肠,但是咀嚼性更高;在该配方中应用0.26%的纤维素酶可显著(p<0.05)提高共混凝胶的硬度、弹性、咀嚼性和最大剪切硬度值,使其在硬度和弹性上和该市售火腿肠相当,且咀嚼性更高。研究结果为利用坛紫菜开发凝胶食品提供了技术和理论支持。  相似文献   

大豆分离蛋白是食品工业中常用的凝胶材料,但其对环境较为敏感,所成凝胶具有机械性能单一,成形性较差等缺点,而多糖对蛋白质的修饰可以改善蛋白质的凝胶性质。本研究通过向大豆分离蛋白中添加适量甜菜果胶,调节大豆分离蛋白和甜菜果胶浓度来构建双网络凝胶,以达到改善蛋白质单一网络凝胶的机械和质构特性的目的。实验中通过酶促和加热两步处理,得到大豆分离蛋白-甜菜果胶双网络凝胶。随着大豆分离蛋白浓度的提高,双网络凝胶的弹性也随之提高。而甜菜果胶浓度越高,双网络凝胶的硬度和咀嚼性越大。当大豆分离蛋白浓度为11%,甜菜果胶浓度为1.5%,加酶量为100 nkat/g底物时,所获的凝胶具有最高的持水率(95.28%)。当大豆分离蛋白浓度为8%,甜菜果胶浓度为2.5%,加酶量为100 nkat/g底物时,双网络凝胶的硬度和咀嚼性分别为4.25/g和4.06/J。大豆分离蛋白-甜菜果胶双网络凝胶的构建,改善了凝胶的机械性能及持水能力,形成了更加有序的三维网状结构。  相似文献   

This study determined temperature (50°, 60°, 70° and 80°C) and time (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h) factors that enhanced the water binding of pork skin connective tissue (PCT); the functionality of added water (AW, 100–600%, w/w) PCT gels; and attributes of bologna containing 10-30% addition of 100–600% AW PCT gels. Heating (70°C) PCT increased water binding. Gels (100–600% AW) were formed by heating PCT (70°C) for 30 min. Higher AW levels increased (p < 0.05) gel moisture content, while decreasing fat, melting points, collagen content, and hardness. Addition of PCT gels in bologna decreased (p < 0.05) hardness and increased juiciness, indicating the potential of PCT gels as water binders and texture-modifying agents.  相似文献   

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