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1.
This article presents a state-space model with time-delay to map the relationship between known input-output data for discrete systems. For the given input-output data, a model identification algorithm combining parameter estimation and state estimation is proposed in line with the causality constraints. Consequently, this article proposes a least squares parameter estimation algorithm, and analyzes its convergence for the studied systems to prove that the parameter estimation errors converge to zero under the persistent excitation conditions. In control system design, the U-model based control is introduced to provide a unilateral platform to improve the design efficiency and generality. A simulation portfolio from modeling to control is provided with computational experiments to validate the derived results.  相似文献   
2.
Because of heat amount is different from peripheral to central of friction welding interface, which is leaded to vary the characterizations along that interface. Current study, respectively, focused on the effect of different friction pressure on micro-structural and mechanical properties of that friction welding joint interface. Presently, these friction pressures are 110, 130, 150 and 170 MPa while kept all other conditions constant. The effects of different friction pressure on welding interface characterization were investigated by EDX, SEM, tensile, compression, impact and hardness tests. The tensile tests carried out on the standardized test piece with diameter 6 mm and 8 mm, thus, compression tests were extracted from the positions of 0°, 45° 90° with test specimen of 4 mm diameter and 6.5 mm length at weld center. Whereas, the impact test pieces were picked up in two positions, the first one is symmetrical, which it obtained to the respect of the rotation axis and the interface, on the other hand, the second one is non-symmetrical with the axis of rotation and symmetrical to the interface, for making the notch head coincide with the center of the welded joint, The obtained results showed that with reducing of friction pressure will present lack of bonding increasing from peripheral toward the welding center, which will responsible on reducing of the mechanical properties such as tensile, compression and impact strength.  相似文献   
3.
Hassan  Lovelu  Khan  K. A. 《Microsystem Technologies》2020,26(3):1031-1041

The efficiency of any electric cell or battery is very important. To keep it in mind it has been studied the columbic efficiency, voltaic efficiency and energy efficiency of a PKL (Pathor Kuchi Leaf) Quasi Voltaic Cell or Modified Voltaic Cell. It was found that the columbic efficiency data illustrated that this efficiency was lower comparing to other efficiencies may be the absence of salt bridge or separator between the electrodes. Because, our designed and fabricated PKL cell does not have any salt bridge. So that the internal resistance is lower than the traditional voltaic cell and as a result more current was found. The voltage and current changes with time and I–V characteristics for PKL unit cell, module, panel and array have also been studied. It is shown that the voltaic and energy efficiency have been studied. However, the highest efficiency was obtained for 40% PKL sap with 5% secondary salt in 55% aqueous solution, which implies that the concentration of PKL juice can play an important role regarding efficiency. It was also found that the average energy efficiency was 97.43% and it was also found that the average voltaic efficiency was 57.29%. Finally, morphological study FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) has also been performed. It is seen that the results confirmed that Zn was deposited on the Cu surface during the electro deposition process in PKL solution. Using AAS, it has been measured the concentration of [Cu2+] as a reactant ion and the concentration of [Zn2+] as a product ion those have been tabulated and graphically discussed. The variation of pH has also been studied with time and which was also tabulated and graphically discussed.

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4.

Considering the internet of things (IoT), end nodes such as wireless sensor network, RFID and embedded systems are used in many applications. These end nodes are known as resource-constrained devices in the IoT network. These devices have limitations such as computing and communication power, memory capacity and power. Key pre-distribution schemes (KPSs) have been introduced as a lightweight solution to key distribution in these devices. Key pre-distribution is a special type of key agreement that aims to select keys called session keys in order to establish secure communication between devices. One of these design types is the using of combinatorial designs in key pre-distribution, which is a deterministic scheme in key pre-distribution and has been considered in recent years. In this paper, by introducing a key pre-distribution scheme of this type, we stated that the model introduced in the two benchmarks of KPSs comparability had full connectivity and scalability among the designs introduced in recent years. Also, in recent years, among the combinatorial design-based key pre-distribution schemes, in order to increase resiliency as another criterion for comparing KPSs, attempts were made to include changes in combinatorial designs or they combine them with random key pre-distribution schemes and hybrid schemes were introduced that would significantly reduce the design connectivity. In this paper, using theoretical analysis and maintaining full connectivity, we showed that the strength of the proposed design was better than the similar designs while maintaining higher scalability.

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5.
Drongstrup  Dorte  Malik  Shafaq  Aljohani  Naif Radi  Alelyani  Salem  Safder  Iqra  Hassan  Saeed-Ul 《Scientometrics》2020,125(2):1541-1558
Scientometrics - Altmetrics are often praised as an alternative or complement to classic bibliometric metrics, especially in the social sciences discipline. However, empirical investigations of...  相似文献   
6.
The methanol‐to‐olefins reaction (MTO) was studied in a small‐scale fluidized‐bed reactor over synthesized silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO‐34) catalysts. Mesoporous nanocrystalline SAPO‐34 molecular sieves were synthesized hydrothermally by ultrasonic and microwave‐assisted aging processes in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and tetradecyldimethyl(3‐trimethoxysilylpropyl)ammonium chloride (TPOAC) as surfactant agents. The Box‐Behnken experimental design method was applied to determine the optimum operating parameters of this process conducted in the fluidized‐bed reactor. The optimum conditions in terms of reaction temperature, ratio of inlet gas velocity to minimum fluidizing velocity, and MeOH weight fraction were evaluated.  相似文献   
7.
Many occupations require workers to stand for long periods of time without proper interventions, which causes discomfort in the back and lower limbs. Therefore, this study aims to assess the effectiveness in alleviating body muscle discomfort during prolonged standing through the use of a calf massager. This study was conducted among male workers at a manufacturer with production line workers and the list was obtained from the HR Department and simple random sampling was done by number categorization. A total of 100 respondents (50 respondents for both the control and the experimental groups) participated in this study. The experiment took place in a room with a similar setup for the production line. Each respondent was requested to perform the simulated task for 2 hr. For the experimental group, the calf massager was turned on every 15 min. At every 15‐min interval after turning on the calf massager, respondents from both groups were required to evaluate their discomfort level on a Borg's scale CR‐10 questionnaire. The results showed that the level of body discomfort among respondents in the experimental group reduced (20–30%) compared with that of the control group. Multivariate analysis results revealed that the discomfort rating for the lower back, knees, thighs, calves, and feet was significantly lower (p < .05) among the experimental group compared with the control group. For lower body parts, the lower back region was statistically significant (p < .05) at the 90th, 105th, and 120th min; the thigh region was statistically significant (p < .05) at the 120th min; the knee region was statistically significant (p < .05) at the 105th and 120th min; the calf region was statistically significant (p < .05) at all minute intervals except the 15th and 45th min, while the feet region, was statistically significant at the 105th and 120th min. Therefore, this study indicates that calf massage treatment is capable of reducing body muscle discomfort during prolonged standing and highlights the significance of calf massage.  相似文献   
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10.
The current study establishes the unprecedented involvement in the evolution and production of novel core–shell nanocomposites composed of nanosized titanium dioxide and aniline‐o‐phenylenediamine copolymer. TiO2@copoly(aniline and o‐phenylenediamine) (TiO2@PANI‐o‐PDA) core–shell nanocomposites were chemically synthesized in a molar ratio of 5:1 of the particular monomers and several weights of nano‐TiO2 via oxidative copolymerization. The construction of the TiO2@PANI‐o‐PDA core–shell nanocomposites was ascertained from Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and XRD. A reasonable thermal behavior for the original copolymer and the TiO2@PANI‐o‐PDA core–shell nanocomposites was investigated. The bare PANI‐o‐PDA copolymer was thermally less stable than the TiO2@PANI‐o‐PDA nanocomposites. The core–shell feature of the nanocomposites was found to have core and shell sizes of 17 nm and 19–26 nm, respectively. In addition, it was found that the addition of a high ratio of TiO2 nanoparticles increases the electrical conductivity and consequently lowers the electrical resistivity of the TiO2@PANI‐o‐PDA core–shell nanocomposites. The hybrid photocatalysts exhibit a dramatic photocatalytic efficacy of methylene blue degradation under solar light irradiation. A plausible interpretation of the photocatalytic degradation results of methylene blue is also demonstrated. Our setup introduces a facile, inexpensive, unique and efficient technique for developing new core–shell nanomaterials with various required functionalities and colloidal stabilities. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
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