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1.
孙搏  付淑军  陈桂良  李丽 《金属学报》2021,26(10):1095-1102
药物相互作用改变了剂量效应关系,可能会降低疗效或增加毒性,是临床应用中合并用药治疗时重要的考虑因素。预测具有临床意义的药物相互作用是药物研发过程中获益风险评估的重要环节。本文概述了药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究的目的和意义,体内和体外研究的主要内容;梳理分析了2020年国家药品监督管理局(National Medical Products Administration, NMPA)和美国食品药品监督管理局(Food and Drug Administration, FDA)批准上市的新药药物相互作用研究情况,旨在为我国药物研发过程中药物相互作用研究及其监管审评提供参考。  相似文献   
2.
Microbiologically influenced corrosion induced by bacteria has been studied for many years. Corrosion is known to be sensitive to the presence of microalgae, such as Phaeodactylum tricornutum. However, the life activity of P. tricornutum that influences the general and localized corrosion of carbon steel is not fully understood. The current study uses a combination of immersion tests and electrochemical experiments with a detailed surface characterization to reveal the naturally formed corrosion products with/without the presence of P. tricornutum. The results show that samples suffer from pitting corrosion and the averaged pit depths are approximately 15 μm under a light–dark cycle condition or a 24-h constant light condition. Meanwhile, the corrosion products are mainly comprised of γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4 in a constant light condition. However, γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4, and FeCO3 are found in a light–dark cycle. This study proposes the fundamental mechanisms of the effect of P. tricornutum life activities on the corrosion performance of Q235 carbon steel, to fulfill the knowledge gaps of the presence of microalgae inducing the general and pitting corrosion of carbon steel.  相似文献   
3.
To benefit from recent advances in modeling and computational algorithms,as well as the availability of new covariance data,sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are needed to quantify the impact of uncertain sources on the design parameters of small prismatic high-temperature gas-cooled reactors(HTGRs).In particular,the contribution of nuclear data to the keff uncertainty is an important part of the uncertainty analysis of small-sized HTGR physical calculations.In this study,a small-sized HTGR designed by China Nuclear Power Engineering Co.,Ltd.was selected for keff uncertainty analysis during full lifetime burnup calculations.Models of the cold zero power(CZP)condition and full lifetime burnup process were constructed using the Reactor Monte Carlo Code RMC for neutron transport calculation,depletion calculation,and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis.For the sensitivity analysis,the Contribution-Linked eigenvalue sensitivity/Uncertainty estimation via Track length importance Characterization(CLUTCH)method was applied to obtain sensitive infor-mation,and the"sandwich"method was used to quantify the keff uncertainty.We also compared the keff uncertainties to other typical reactors.Our results show that 235U is the largest contributor to keff uncertainty for both the CZP and depletion conditions,while the contribution of 239Pu is not very significant because of the design of low discharge burnup.It is worth noting that the radioactive capture reaction of 28Si significantly contributes to the keff uncer-tainty owing to its specific fuel design.However,the keff uncertainty during the full lifetime depletion process was relatively stable,only increasing by 1.12%owing to the low discharge burnup design of small-sized HTGRs.These numerical results are beneficial for neutronics design and core parameters optimization in further uncertainty prop-agation and quantification study for small-sized HTGR.  相似文献   
4.
为了实现万吨生产线产能扩大后的用煤量需求,单台煤立磨产量已无法满足,面对同时运转两台煤立磨出现的问题,逐步进行分析,查找原因,通过将入磨热风管一分为二,解决了风量分配不均、工况波动造成的磨机振动跳停等一系列问题,效果显著。  相似文献   
5.
Porous g-C3N4 nanosheets (PCN) were prepared by the nickel-assisted one-step thermal polymerization method.Hydrogen (H2) which was produced by the reaction between nickel (Ni) foam and ammonia (NH3) defined the structure and properties of PCN.During the formation of PCN,the participation of H2 not only enhanced the spacing between layers but also boosted the specific surface area that more active sites were exposed.Additionally,H2 promoted pores formation in the nanosheets,which was beneficial to the transfer of photons through lamellar structure and improved the absorption efficiency of visible light.Remarkably,the obtained PCN possessed better Cr(Ⅵ) photocatalytic reduction efficiency than pure g-C3N4.The reaction rate constant (k) of PCN (0.013 min-1) was approximately twice that of bare g-C3N4 (0.007 min-1).Furthermore,the effects of original pH and concentration of Cr(Ⅵ)-containing solution on removal efficiency of Cr(Ⅵ) were explored.A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the experiments of radical scavengers and photoelectrochemical characterizations.  相似文献   
6.
Wire arc additive manufacturing(WAAM)has been investigated to deposit large-scale metal parts due to its high deposition efficiency and low material cost.However,in the process of automatically manufacturing the high-quality metal parts by WAAM,several problems about the heat build-up,the deposit-path optimization,and the stability of the process parameters need to be well addressed.To overcome these issues,a new WAAM method based on the double electrode micro plasma arc welding(DE-MPAW)was designed.The circuit principles of different metal-transfer models in the DE-MPAW deposition process were analyzed theoretically.The effects between the parameters,wire feed rate and torch stand-off distance,in the process of WAAM were investigated experimentally.In addition,a real-time DE-MPAW control system was developed to optimize and stabilize the deposition process by self-adaptively changing the wire feed rate and torch stand-off distance.Finally,a series of tests were performed to evaluate the con-trol system's performance.The results show that the capability against interferences in the process of WAAM has been enhanced by this self-adaptive adjustment system.Further,the deposition paths about the metal part's layer heights in WAAM are simplified.Finally,the appearance of the WAAM-deposited metal layers is also improved with the use of the control system.  相似文献   
7.
何峰  符冬菊  陈建军  檀满林 《电池》2021,51(1):83-87
从沸石咪唑酯骨架材料(ZIF)衍生的含过渡金属催化剂出发,介绍ZIF衍生催化剂前驱体的制备和热解温度、气氛对催化剂的影响,总结ZIF衍生的铂和非贵金属催化剂材料用于氧还原反应(ORR)的研究进展.提出有关ZIF衍生ORR催化剂发展面临的实际应用挑战和活性位点探究问题.  相似文献   
8.
LiFePO4 modified by N-doped graphene (NG) with a three-dimensional conductive network structure was synthesized via a one-step in situ hydrothermal method. The effects of N amount of NG on the phase structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 are investigated in this study. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that doping suitable N amounts in NG do not alter the crystal structure of LiFePO4, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that NG can slightly reduce the particle size of LiFePO4. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results show that the LiFePO4 particles are well covered and connected by NG. The electrochemical performance confirms that LiFePO4 modified by 20% N-doped graphene (named LFP/NG-4) displays a perfect specific capacity of 166.6 mAh·g?1 at a rate of 0.2C and can reach 125 mAh·g?1 at a rate of 5 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results illustrate that the charge transfer resistance value of the LFP/NG-4 composite is only 58.6 Ω, which is very low compared with LiFePO4. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests indicate that the addition of 20% N-doped graphene can effectively reduce electrode polarization and improve reversibility. The LFP/NG-4 composite with a three-dimensional conductive network structure can be regarded as a promising cathode material for Li-ion batteries.  相似文献   
9.
To gain insight into the ageing behavior of ultrafine grain(UFG)structure,the precipitation phenom-ena and microstructural evolutions of Mg-6Zn-1Y-0.4Ce-0.5 Zr(wt.%)alloy processed by sliding friction treatment(SFT)were systematically studied using hardness texting,transmission electron microscopy(TEM)equipped with high-angle annular dark-field scanning(HADDF-STEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD)and XRD line broadening analysis.The microhardness of the SFT-processed(SFTed)sample initially decreases from 109.6 HV to 104.8 HV at ageing for 8 h,and then increases to the peak-ageing point of 115.4 HV at 16 h.Subsequently,it enters the over-aged period.The un-SFTed sample,as the counterpart,follows a regular ageing behavior that increases from 89.9 HV to 99.6 HV when ageing for 12 h,and then drops.A multi-mechanistic model is established to describe the strengthening due to grain refinement,disloca-tion accumulation,precipitation etc.The analysis reveals that the temperature sensitive UFG structure has an obvious grain coarsening effect,which arouses the soft phenomenon in the early ageing stage.But precipitation hardening provides an excellent hardness enhancement for overcoming the negative influ-ence and helping to reach the peak-aged point.In our microstructural observations,a lot of equilibrium ultrafine MgZn2 precipitates precipitate along dislocations because defects can provide the favorable conditions for the migration and segregation of solute atoms.  相似文献   
10.
Jingdezhen is famous for its bluish white (Qingbai) porcelains of the Song Dynasty, and those decorated with iron spots are distinctive among them. Herein, iron spots on a bluish white porcelain were investigated using a series of microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations. We found the decreasing iron content from more than 8 wt% to about 2 wt% during the glaze color transition from rusty to brown and finally into green, which built a connection on the coloring mechanism of iron-rich crystallized glaze and celadon glaze. We identified the rare ε-Fe2O3, a promising magnetic material, in both the dark brown crystals and the triangular crystals in the rusty area, which is its first discovery among bluish white porcelains. Based on these findings, we discussed the coloring mechanism of iron-spot decoration along with the physical form of the iron oxide crystals, indicating the partially reducing atmosphere during firing process.  相似文献   
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