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1.
This article provides a critical assessment of H2 from the standpoint of more widespread use as a sustainable fuel for Indian mobility applications in the global context. The potential techno-economic advantages of utilizing H2 for automobiles rather than battery electric vehicles or conventional internal combustion engine vehicles are emphasized. The present assessment demonstrates that H2 production, storage, and distribution costs are the primary challenges, and a significant improvement is still necessary for H2 to compete either against the internal combustion engine vehicle or the battery electric vehicle to win the race, arguably. The secondary challenges have also been demonstrated, which include the cost of the fuel cell stack and the modifications associated with internal combustion engine vehicles, as well as regulatory and safety concerns, which impede the widespread usage of H2. It is critical that policy-making for sustainable mobility in India is possible with the aid of a National H2 Energy Road-Map. This in turn can achieve a cost target of $0.5/kg for H2.  相似文献   
2.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered a promising alternative to conventional vehicles (CVs) to alleviate the oil crisis and reduce urban air pollution and carbon emissions. Consumers usually focus on the tangible cost when choosing an EV or CV but overlook the time cost for restricting purchase or driving and the environmental cost from gas emissions, falling to have a comprehensive understanding of the economic competitiveness of CVs and EVs. In this study, a life cycle cost model for vehicles is conducted to express traffic and environmental policies in monetary terms, which are called intangible cost and external cost, respectively. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and CVs are compared in four first-tier, four new first-tier, and 4 s-tier and below cities in China. The comparison shows that BEVs and FCEVs in most cities are incomparable with CVs in terms of tangible cost. However, the prominent traffic and environmental policies in first-tier cities, especially in Beijing and Shanghai, greatly increase the intangible and external costs of CVs, making consumers more inclined to purchase BEVs and FCEVs. The main policy benefits of BEVs and FCEVs come from three aspects: government subsidies, purchase and driving restrictions, and environmental taxes. With the predictable reduction in government subsidies, traffic and environmental policies present important factors influencing the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. In first-tier cities, BEVs and FCEVs already have a competitive foundation for large-scale promotion. In new first-tier and second-tier and below cities, stricter traffic and environmental policies need to be formulated to offset the negative impact of the reduction in government subsidies on the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis reveals that increasing the mileage and reducing fuel prices can significantly improve the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs, respectively.  相似文献   
3.
This paper assesses building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installation parameters based on the profit generated by a photovoltaic system. It takes into consideration a home building case study and it investigates its monthly energy demand based on a specific location and a typical occupancy. The capability of a photovoltaic (PV) system to generate more profit occurs when solar intensity is maximum while the electric energy price is at its highest rate. The paper traces a framework that encompasses different aspects such as energy demand, energy price, and solar intensity. This framework identifies profit alternatives according to different installation parameters. A tool that predicts a PV installation hourly electric energy production is developed. The profit generated is simulated for home buildings located in Beirut (Lebanon) and Xihua (China), both at 33.8° latitude north. The paper highlights a new approach for BIPV installations, taking into account weather conditions, energy demand, and electric energy utility rates.  相似文献   
4.
《Ceramics International》2020,46(4):4148-4153
The ferroelectric photovoltaic (FPV) effect obtained in inorganic perovskite ferroelectric materials has received much attention because of its large potential in preparing FPV devices with superior stability, high open-circuit voltage (Voc) and large short-circuit current density (Jsc). In order to obtain suitable thickness for the ferroelectric thin film as light absorption layer, in which, the sunlight can be fully absorbed and the photo-generated electrons and holes are recombined as few as possible, we prepare Pb0.93La0.07(Zr0.6Ti0.4)0.9825O3 (PLZT) ferroelectric thin films with different layer numbers by the sol-gel method and based on these thin films, obtain FPV devices with FTO/PLZT/Au structure. By measuring photovoltaic properties, it is found that the device with 4 layer-PLZT thin film (~300 nm thickness) exhibits the largest Voc and Jsc and the photovoltaic effect obviously depends on the value and direction of the poling electric field. When the device is applied a negative poling electric field, both the Voc and Jsc are significantly higher than those of the device applied the positive poling electric field, due to the depolarization field resulting from the remnant polarization in the same direction with the built-in electric field induced by the Schottky barrier, and the higher the negative poling electric field, the larger the Voc and Jsc. At a -333 kV/cm poling electric field, the FPV device exhibits the most superior photovoltaic properties with a Voc of as high as 0.73 V and Jsc of as large as 2.11 μA/cm2. This work opens a new way for developing ferroelectric photovoltaic devices with good properties.  相似文献   
5.
某出口型号交流电力机车牵引控制系统要求变流器控制逻辑具备接触器控制、牵引系统数据交互、变流器故障保护、变流器启动自检等功能。针对以上功能,基于MATLAB中的Simulink/Stateflow可视化编程工具进行牵引控制模型的搭建,遵循模块化编程理念,采用较少的程序代码编写实现复杂的逻辑控制模型,生成逻辑清晰的控制功能流程图,进行半实物仿真测试,增强控制模型的可靠性。通过该变流器产品型式试验检验,验证变流器控制逻辑的功能可以满足控制系统的需求。  相似文献   
6.
In this article, we study a linear array of bowtie nanoantennas placed between two metallic strips that can work from 800 to 1420 nm (600 nm linewidth), with an electric field enhancement factor close to 20. We study the dynamical change of the position of the electric field enhancement amongst different elements in the array and, at the same time, the effects of dispersion on the scalability of the array elements. A systematic analysis and methodology to produce an array that can operate over a large bandwidth whilst maintaining the electric field enhancement without significant variation is provided.  相似文献   
7.
本文分析了选用标准笼形电动机的容量计算方法、问题分析和选用变频器的型式、容量、注意事项。  相似文献   
8.
王悦芳  郭拉凤 《山西冶金》2006,29(2):45-47,66
简述了电动助力转向系统的研究现状及其基本结构、工作原理和主要特点。分析了该系统的主要元件,论述了亥系统的发展趋势。  相似文献   
9.
提高电脱盐效果的措施   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
中国石油天然气股份有限公司庆阳石化分公司常压蒸馏装置一、二期技术改造结束后,装置加工能力由0.5 Mt/a增加到1.0 Mt/a,最高时达到1.3 Mt/a。但电脱盐装置脱后原油中盐的质量浓度一直在4.0-5.0 mgNaCL/L居高不下。为了降低脱后原油中盐的质量浓度,提高催化裂化装置催化剂活性,对电脱盐装置进行了技术改造,优化了操作参数,这到了脱后原油中盐的质量浓度小于3 mg- NaCl/L的预期效果,取得了较好的经济效益。  相似文献   
10.
通过对加油站电气设备引发着火爆炸事故的作业环节、发生部位、点火源和对事故原因的综合定性定量分析。指出电气设备不防爆和电气线路安装不符合防爆要求,以及规章制度不健全,管理不到位是引发着火爆炸的主要原因,提出了要提高思想认识,做好加油站防爆电气设备的全面普查摸底。要搞好新建加油站或改建项目的竣工验收和落实责任,加强防爆电气的使用管理等措施。  相似文献   
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