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1.
Frozen poultry meat is the most widely consumed animal-based food. However, water loss often leads to quality loss of poultry meat. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the combined effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment on chicken breast meats and the mechanisms underlying protein degradation. The results showed that the synergistic effect was superior to the single treatment. Compared with the untreated group, the combination of CaCl2 and PEF increased water holding capacity of chicken breast meats by 16.61% and decreased cooking loss by 28.93%. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) results indicated that the synergistic treatment promoted water molecules' binding capacity in myofibrils of poultry meat, which exhibited higher immobilised water. Additionally, the combination of CaCl2 and PEF led to increased degradation of proteins of high-molecular weight and surface hydrophobicity of myofibrillar protein. Furthermore, the extension of the protein molecule and microenvironmental changes promoted interaction between protein and water. In conclusion, the synergistic treatment of CaCl2 and PEF enhanced water retention and improved physicochemical properties of the myofibrillar protein in chicken breast meats.  相似文献   
2.
This paper aims to provide a review of the conceptual design and theoretical framework of the main control schemes proposed in the literature for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). Additionally, the objective of the paper is not only to present an overview of the recent control architectures validated on UUVs but also to give detailed experimental-based comparative studies of the proposed control schemes. To this end, the main control schemes, including proportional–integral–derivative (PID) based, sliding mode control (SMC) based, adaptive based, observation-based, model predictive control (MPC) based, combined control techniques, are revisited in order to consolidate the principal efforts made in the last two decades by the automatic control community in the field. Besides implementing some key tracking control schemes from the classification mentioned above on Leonard UUV, several real-time experimental scenarios are tested, under different operating conditions, to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the selected tracking control schemes. Furthermore, we point out potential investigation gaps and future research trends at the end of this survey.  相似文献   
3.
The hydrogen pressure inside tanks and its adjacent pipes can reach up to 70 MPa in fuel cell vehicles. This is the weak links of hydrogen leakage. The diagnosis time of mainstream hydrogen leakage diagnosis method based on hydrogen concentration sensors (HCSs) is easily affected by the number and location of installed sensors. In this study, a data-driven diagnosis method is proposed for the high-pressure hydrogen leakage. Fisher discrimination analysis and linear least squares fitting are used for data preprocessing, relevance vector machine is used for pattern recognition. When the total volume of tanks is 82 L and the hydrogen leakage flow rate is larger than 2 g/s, the diagnosis accuracy of the proposed method is higher than 95% and the diagnosis time is constant. When the leakage location is far away from HCSs, the proposed method can the diagnose hydrogen leakage in a shorter time than mainstream method.  相似文献   
4.
The energy management and trajectory tracking control are crucial to realize long-endurance autonomous flight for hybrid electric UAVs. This study aims to comprehensively consider energy management and trajectory tracking for hybrid electric fixed wing UAVs with photovoltaic panel/fuel cell/battery. A double-layer fuzzy adaptive nonlinear model predictive control method (DFNMPC) is proposed. Separated by the surplus demand power, energy management and trajectory tracking problem are decoupled into the high-layer fuzzy adaptive nonlinear model predictive controll problem (H-FNMPC) and low-layer fuzzy adaptive nonlinear model predictive controll problem (L-FNMPC). H-FNMPC solves the trajectory tracking and navigation control probelm for the greatest benefit of solar energy. L-FNMPC solves the power allocation problem of hybrid energy system for minimum equivalent hydrogen consumption. A fuzzy adaptive prediction horizon adjustment method based on UAV maneuvering degree is proposed to effectively improve proposed method adaptability to different mission profiles. Analogously, a fuzzy adaptive equivalent hydrogen consumption factor adjustment method in L-FNMPC is proposed to ensure the flexible utilization of battery. In addition, an equivalent hydrogen flow rate calculation method based on the real-time current ratio is proposed for PV/FC/Battery hybrid energy system. Numerical simulation results including a spiral trajectory tracking and a quadrilateral trajectory tracking, demonstrate that DFNMPC can simultaneously handle energy management and trajectory tracking problem for hybrid electric UAVs. Compared to hierarchical fuzzy state machine strategy, DFNMPC can save 13.3% hydrogen for the spiral trajectory tracking, and 56.9% for the quadrilateral trajectory tracking. It indicates that the energy efficiency can be improved from both levels of energy management and flight motion. The proposed method prospected for exploring high-energy-efficiency autonomous flight of hybrid electric UAVs in the future.  相似文献   
5.
The fuel cell/battery durability and hybrid system stability are major considerations for the power management of fuel cell hybrid electric bus (FCHEB) operating on complicated driving conditions. In this paper, a real time nonlinear adaptive control (NAC) with stability analyze is formulated for power management of FCHEB. Firstly, the mathematical model of hybrid power system is analyzed, which is established for control-oriented design. Furthermore, the NAC-based strategy with quadratic Lyapunov function is set up to guarantee the stability of closed-loop power system, and the power split between fuel cell and battery is controlled with the durability consideration. Finally, two real-time power management strategies, state machine control (SMC) and fuzzy logic control (FLC), are implemented to evaluate the performance of NAC-based strategy, and the simulation results suggest that the guaranteed stability of NAC-based strategy can efficiently prolong fuel cell/battery lifespan and provide better fuel consumption economy for FCHEB.  相似文献   
6.
This paper considers the shared path following control of an unmanned ground vehicle by a single person. A passive measure of human intent is used to blend the human and machine inputs in a mixed initiative approach. The blending law is combined with saturated super-twisting sliding mode speed and heading controllers, so that exogenous disturbances can be counteracted via equivalent control. It is proven that when the proposed blending law is used, the combined control signals from both the human and automatic controller respect the actuator magnitude constraints of the machine. To demonstrate the approach, shared control experiments are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle, which follows a lawn mower pattern shaped path.  相似文献   
7.
This article provides a critical assessment of H2 from the standpoint of more widespread use as a sustainable fuel for Indian mobility applications in the global context. The potential techno-economic advantages of utilizing H2 for automobiles rather than battery electric vehicles or conventional internal combustion engine vehicles are emphasized. The present assessment demonstrates that H2 production, storage, and distribution costs are the primary challenges, and a significant improvement is still necessary for H2 to compete either against the internal combustion engine vehicle or the battery electric vehicle to win the race, arguably. The secondary challenges have also been demonstrated, which include the cost of the fuel cell stack and the modifications associated with internal combustion engine vehicles, as well as regulatory and safety concerns, which impede the widespread usage of H2. It is critical that policy-making for sustainable mobility in India is possible with the aid of a National H2 Energy Road-Map. This in turn can achieve a cost target of $0.5/kg for H2.  相似文献   
8.
The materials processing history has a great influence on their properties and finally determines their application effect. In this paper, the ferroelectric, polarization-switching current, and strain properties of Mn-doped 0.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbTiO3 ceramics were studied in fresh state, aged state, and poled state, respectively. Compared with the symmetric polarization-electric-field (P-E) hysteresis loops, current-density-electric-field (J-E) curves, and bipolar electric-field-induced strain (S-E) curves in fresh state samples, asymmetric P-E loops, J-E curves, and bipolar S-E curves were obtained in poled state samples. Well-aged-state samples exhibit double hysteresis P-E loop, four peaks J-E curves, and symmetric S-E curves without negative strain. The symmetry-conforming short-range order (SC-SRO) principle of point defects and internal electric field Ei is employed to clarify the different phenomenon of three states. Results indicated that randomly oriented defect polarization PD in aged samples can reverse the spontaneous polarization PS back and result in the double hysteresis P-E loop and four peaks J-E curves. The oriented PD and resulting Ei in poled-state samples will lead to the asymmetric loops and strain memory effect.  相似文献   
9.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered a promising alternative to conventional vehicles (CVs) to alleviate the oil crisis and reduce urban air pollution and carbon emissions. Consumers usually focus on the tangible cost when choosing an EV or CV but overlook the time cost for restricting purchase or driving and the environmental cost from gas emissions, falling to have a comprehensive understanding of the economic competitiveness of CVs and EVs. In this study, a life cycle cost model for vehicles is conducted to express traffic and environmental policies in monetary terms, which are called intangible cost and external cost, respectively. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), and CVs are compared in four first-tier, four new first-tier, and 4 s-tier and below cities in China. The comparison shows that BEVs and FCEVs in most cities are incomparable with CVs in terms of tangible cost. However, the prominent traffic and environmental policies in first-tier cities, especially in Beijing and Shanghai, greatly increase the intangible and external costs of CVs, making consumers more inclined to purchase BEVs and FCEVs. The main policy benefits of BEVs and FCEVs come from three aspects: government subsidies, purchase and driving restrictions, and environmental taxes. With the predictable reduction in government subsidies, traffic and environmental policies present important factors influencing the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. In first-tier cities, BEVs and FCEVs already have a competitive foundation for large-scale promotion. In new first-tier and second-tier and below cities, stricter traffic and environmental policies need to be formulated to offset the negative impact of the reduction in government subsidies on the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis reveals that increasing the mileage and reducing fuel prices can significantly improve the competitiveness of BEVs and FCEVs, respectively.  相似文献   
10.
从原料、中空成型机和吹塑工艺等方面介绍了我国中空吹塑行业发展现状,并对电子化学品专用超洁净桶、高压储氢四型瓶、全电动中空成型机、微发泡中空成型技术和挤吹聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)容器等在“十四五”期间的重点产品、工艺和设备发展方向进行了展望。  相似文献   
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