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1.
In this article, pre-assembly hot-press pressure and thermal expansion effects in gas-diffusion layers (GDLs) are addressed to explore the practicalities of the constitutive model reported in the companion article. A facile technique is proposed to include deformation history dependent residual strain effects. The model is implemented in the numerical environment and compared with widely followed conventional models such as isotropic and orthotropic material models. With the normal and accelerated thermal expansion effects no significant variation in stresses or strains is reported with the compressible GDL model in contrast to the conventional incompressible form of the GDL model. The present work identifies the critical differences with advanced and extended variants of the model along with conventional GDL material models in terms of planar stress/strain distribution and the membrane response. Finally, the model is simulated for micro-cyclic stress loads of varying amplitudes that imitate the real working conditions of fuel cell. The inelastic energy dissipation in GDLs is predicted using the proposed model, which is utilized further to distinguish the safe (elastic) and unsafe (inelastic shakedown) operating limits. The inelastic collapse of GDLs is shown to be a active function of high amplitude micro-cyclic load with high initial clamping load.  相似文献   
2.
To satisfy arising energy needs and to handle the forthcoming worldwide climate transformation, the major research attention has been drawn to environmentally friendly, renewable and abundant energy resources. Hydrogen plays an ideal and significant role is such resources, due to its non-carbon based energy and production through clean energy. In this work, we have explored catalytic activity of a newly predicted haeckelite boron nitride quantum dot (haeck-BNQD), constructed from the infinite BN sheet, for its utilization in hydrogen production. Density functional theory calculations are employed to investigate geometry optimization, electronic and adsorption mechanism of haeck-BNQD using Gaussian16 package, employing the hybrid B3LYP and wB97XD functionals, along with 6–31G(d,p) basis set. A number of physical quantities such as HOMO/LUMO energies, density of states, hydrogen atom adsorption energies, Mulliken populations, Gibbs free energy, work functions, overpotentials, etc., have been computed and analysed in the context of the catalytic performance of haeck-BNQD for the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER). Based on our calculations, we predict that the best catalytic performance will be obtained for H adsorption on top of the squares or the octagons of haeck-BNQD. We hope that our prediction of most active catalytic sites on haeck-BNQD for HER will be put to test in future experiments.  相似文献   
3.
‘Renewable energy is an essential part of our strategy of decarbonization, decentralization, as well as digitalization of energy.’ – Isabelle Kocher.Current climate, health and economic condition of our globe demands the use of renewable energy and the development of novel materials for the efficient generation, storage and transportation of renewable energy. Hydrogen has been recognised as one of the most prominent carriers and green energy source with challenging storage, enabling decarbonization. Photocatalytic H2 (green hydrogen) production processes are targeting the intensification of separated solar energy harvesting, storage and electrolysis, conventionally yielding O2/H2. While catalysis is being investigated extensively, little is done on bridging the gap, related to reactor unit design, optimisation and scaling, be it that of material or of operation. Herein, metals, oxides, perovskites, nitrides, carbides, sulphides, phosphides, 2D structures and heterojunctions are compared in terms of parameters, allowing for efficiency, thermodynamics or kinetics structure–activity relationships, such as the solar-to-hydrogen (STH). Moreover, prominent pilot systems are presented summarily.  相似文献   
4.
Development of highly efficient and cheap electrocatalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is of great importance for electrochemical water splitting. Herein, hybrid Cu/NiMo-P nanowires on the copper foam were successfully fabricated via a simple two-step method. The hierarchically structured Cu/NiMo-P exhibits large surface areas and rapid electron transfer ability, leading to enhanced catalytic activity. The as-prepared Cu/NiMo-P electrodes need overpotentials of 34 mV and 130 mV to obtain 10 mA cm?2 for HER in acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the Cu/NiMo-P hybrid has a more thermo-neutral hydrogen adsorption free energy and enhanced charge transfer ability as well.  相似文献   
5.
Eco-friendly quantum dots (QDs) can be termed green QDs which stand as an attractive choice to modify the properties of known semiconductors in the direction of getting efficient photoelectrodes for solar-induced photoelectrochemical (PEC) splitting of water, due to their peculiar properties. Thus, it is of high significance to analyze their merit/demerit as an effective scaffold in PEC cell. QDs are known for their excellent optical properties however, the coupling of green QDs with semiconductor is not only useful in improving absorption characteristics but also promotes charge transfer. This review has undertaken the critical analysis on the worldwide research going on the green QDs modified photoelectrode with respect to their optical, electrical & photoelectrochemical properties, role, usefulness, efficiency, and finally the success in PEC system for hydrogen production. Various methods on the facile synthesis & sensitization techniques of green QDs available in the literature have also been discussed. Further, recent advances on the development of green QDs based photo-electrode, along with major challenges of using green QDs in this field have also been presented.  相似文献   
6.
乡村产业中的化石能源设备逐渐被电能技术替代,引起了乡村负荷波动增大、部分时段产生集中高负荷的问题。为了解决以上问题,将低品位清洁能源应用至乡村的茶叶生产中,针对烘茶全过程的工艺要求提出了跨临界CO2热泵烘茶技术;并以某茶叶生产乡村为对象,对其代表台区的全年日用电量及产茶日负荷进行了分析,得出采用CO2热泵烘茶后其负荷得到大幅度削减,整体可降低至原负荷的39.6%~46.8%,峰值负荷与平时负荷的比值由原本的13.6降至5.4~6.2。跨临界CO2热泵应用至农产品生产中可有效缓解乡村供电压力。  相似文献   
7.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(3):2408-2425
Reggiana and Modenese are autochthonous cattle breeds, reared in the North of Italy, that can be mainly distinguished for their standard coat color (Reggiana is red, whereas Modenese is white with some pale gray shades). Almost all milk produced by these breeds is transformed into 2 mono-breed branded Parmigiano-Reggiano cheeses, from which farmers receive the economic incomes needed for the sustainable conservation of these animal genetic resources. After the setting up of their herd books in 1960s, these breeds experienced a strong reduction in the population size that was subsequently reverted starting in the 1990s (Reggiana) or more recently (Modenese) reaching at present a total of about 2,800 and 500 registered cows, respectively. Due to the small population size of these breeds, inbreeding is a very important cause of concern for their conservation programs. Inbreeding is traditionally estimated using pedigree data, which are summarized in an inbreeding coefficient calculated at the individual level (FPED). However, incompleteness of pedigree information and registration errors can affect the effectiveness of conservation strategies. High-throughput SNP genotyping platforms allow investigation of inbreeding using genome information that can overcome the limits of pedigree data. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate genomic inbreeding, with the use of runs of homozygosity (ROH) considered to be the more appropriate. In this study, several pedigree and genomic inbreeding parameters, calculated using the whole herd book populations or considering genotyping information (GeneSeek GGP Bovine 150K) from 1,684 Reggiana cattle and 323 Modenese cattle, were compared. Average inbreeding values per year were used to calculate effective population size. Reggiana breed had generally lower genomic inbreeding values than Modenese breed. The low correlation between pedigree-based and genomic-based parameters (ranging from 0.187 to 0.195 and 0.319 to 0.323 in the Reggiana and Modenese breeds, respectively) reflected the common problems of local populations in which pedigree records are not complete. The high proportion of short ROH over the total number of ROH indicates no major recent inbreeding events in both breeds. ROH islands spread over the genome of the 2 breeds (15 in Reggiana and 14 in Modenese) identified several signatures of selection. Some of these included genes affecting milk production traits, stature, body conformation traits (with a main ROH island in both breeds on BTA6 containing the ABCG2, NCAPG, and LCORL genes) and coat color (on BTA13 in Modenese containing the ASIP gene). In conclusion, this work provides an extensive comparative analysis of pedigree and genomic inbreeding parameters and relevant genomic information that will be useful in the conservation strategies of these 2 iconic local cattle breeds.  相似文献   
8.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(6):8325-8330
In this work, we propose a facile approach to fabricate Ti4+-doped Li3V2(PO4)3/C (abbreviated as C-LVTP) nanofibers using an electrospinning route followed by a high temperature treatment. In this designed nanocomposite, the ultrafine LVTP dots are homogeneously dispersed into one-dimensional carbon nanofibers and the Ti4+ doping does not destroy the crystal structure of monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3. Compared to the undoped Li3V2(PO4)3/C (abbreviated as C-LVP), the as-fabricated C-LVTP fibers present higher reversible capacity, superior high-rate capability as well as better cyclic property. Especially, the C-LVT7%P cathode delivers not only high capacities of 187.2 and 160.3 mAh g?1 at 0.5 and 10 C respectively, but also stable cyclic property with the reversible capacity of 135.8 mAh g?1 at 20 C following 500-cycle spans. The good battery characteristics of C-LVT7%P can be mainly ascribed to Ti4+ doping, which can increase the electrical conductivity and Li+ diffusion coefficient.  相似文献   
9.
This work aimed to examine the performance of the hybrid sintering of clay ceramic in a microwave furnace, compared to the sintering process in a conventional furnace. The raw materials were subjected to X-ray fluorescence, loss on ignition (LOI), X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, real specific mass, and thermogravimetric analyses. The red clay ceramic mass was prepared, extruded, pre-sintered in a conventional furnace at 600°C/60 min, and sintered at temperatures between 700 °C and 1100 °C. The sintering conventional (resistive oven) was carried out for 60 min with a heating rate of 10°C/min. In the microwave furnace, the sintering times were 5, 10, and 15 min, with a heating rate of 50°C/min, with a sintering chamber coated with silicon carbide (susceptor). The sintered specimens were characterized according to linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent specific mass, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy analysis, spectroscopy analysis in the ultraviolet and visible regions, microhardness, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that microwave sintering promoted an increase in the microhardness and apparent specific mass, and reduction in water absorption and apparent porosity values, due to greater densification in the microstructure. The best results occurred for specimens sintered at 1100°C.  相似文献   
10.
王东 《水泥工程》2021,34(4):42-44
根据水泥烧成热耗的组成,降低高温设备表面散热是降低水泥烧成热耗的重要途径之一,而减少高温窑炉墙壁的热传导可有效降低设备的表面散热。本文在介绍无机内保温涂层隔热原理的基础上,对保温涂层的应用效果进行了对比研究,通过在传统耐火隔热材料的基础上增加新型无机内保温涂层,可有效降低高温设备外表面温度,减少水泥生产中的散热损失,达到节能降耗的目的。  相似文献   
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