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1.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(4):3176-3191
Milk concentrates are used in the manufacturing of dairy products such as yogurt and cheese or are processed into milk powder. Processes for the nonthermal separation of water and valuable milk ingredients are becoming increasingly widespread at farm level. The technical barriers to using farm-manufactured milk concentrate in dairies are minimal, hence the suspicion that the practice of on-farm raw milk concentration is still fairly uncommon for economic reasons. This study, therefore, set out to investigate farmers' potential willingness to adopt a raw milk concentration plant. The empirical analysis was based on discrete choice experiments with 75 German dairy farmers to identify preferences and the possible adoption of on-farm raw milk concentration. The results showed that, in particular, farmers who deemed the current milk price to be insufficient viewed on-farm concentration using membrane technology as an option for diversifying their milk sales. We found no indication that adoption would be impeded by a lack of trustworthy information on milk processing technologies or capital.  相似文献   
2.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(20):29862-29872
Thermal shock parameters (R, R''', R'''' and Rst) of MgAlON–MgO composites obtained with additions of spent MgO–C brick were calculated using measured mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient, determining their resistance to fracture initiation and crack propagation. The cyclic thermal shock experiments of MgAlON–MgO composites performed from 1398 K to ambient temperature indicate that as number of thermal shock cycle increases, retained strength ratio of MgAlON and MgAlON–4.2 wt%MgO sharply decrease and then keep constant, while that of MgAlON–10.5 wt%MgO and MgAlON–15.7 wt%MgO slowly decrease. The reason for the difference is that MgAlON and MgAlON–4.2 wt%MgO show low value of R''' and R'''', and high value of R and Rst. Moreover, precipitation of impurity containing Fe may play a positive role in improvement of thermal shock resistance of MgAlON–MgO composites. MgAlON?4.2 wt%MgO has the maximum retained strength (55 MPa) even after 5 thermal shock cycles, which is expected to be used in the metallurgical industry.  相似文献   
3.
Corrosion and salt deposition problems severely restrict the industrialization of supercritical water oxidation. Transpiring wall reactor can effectively weaken these two problems by a protective water film. In this work, methanol was selected as organic matter, and the influences of vital structural parameters on water film properties and organic matter removal were studied via numerical simulation. The results indicate that higher than 99% of methanol conversion could be obtained and hardly affected by transpiration water layer, transpiring wall porosity and inner diameter. Increasing layer and porosity reduced reactor center temperature, but inner diameter's influence was lower relatively. Water film temperature reduced but coverage rate raised as layer, porosity, and inner diameter increased. Notably, the whole reactor was in supercritical state and coverage rate was only approximately 85% in the case of one layer. Increasing reactor length affected slightly the volume of the upper supercritical zone but enlarged the subcritical zone.  相似文献   
4.
5.
《Journal of dairy science》2022,105(10):8130-8142
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measurement of the difference between actual and predicted feed intake when adjusted for energy sinks; more efficient cows eat less than predicted (low RFI) and inefficient cows eat more than predicted (high RFI). Data evaluating the relationship between RFI and feeding behaviors (FB) are limited in dairy cattle; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine daily and temporal FB in mid-lactation Holstein cows across a range of RFI values. Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 592 multiparous; 304 primiparous) were enrolled in 17 cohorts at 97 ± 26 d in milk (± standard deviation), and all cows within a cohort were fed a common diet using automated feeding bins. Cow RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and observed dry matter intake (DMI) after accounting for parity, days in milk, milk energy, metabolic body weight and change, and experiment. The associations between RFI and FB at the level of meals and daily totals were evaluated using mixed models with the fixed effect of RFI and the random effects of cow and cohort. Daily temporal FB analyses were conducted using 2-h blocks and analyzed using mixed models with the fixed effects of RFI, time, RFI × time, and cohort, and the random effect of cow (cohort). There was a positive linear association between RFI and DMI in multiparous cows and a positive quadratic relationship in primiparous cows, where the rate of increase in DMI was less at higher RFI. Eating rate, DMI per meal, and size of the largest daily meal were positively associated with RFI. Daily temporal analysis of FB revealed an interaction between RFI and time for eating rate in multiparous and primiparous cows. The eating rate increased with greater RFI at 11 of 12 time points throughout the day, and eating rate differed across RFI between multiple time points. There tended to be an interaction between RFI and time for eating time and bin visits in multiparous cows but not primiparous cows. Overall, there was a time effect for all FB variables, where DMI, eating time and rate, and bin visits were greatest after the initial daily feeding at 1200 h, increased slightly after each milking, and reached a nadir at 0600 h (6 h before feeding). Considering the relationship between RFI and eating rate, additional efforts to determine cost-effective methods of quantifying eating rate in group-housed dairy cows is warranted. Further investigation is also warranted to determine if management strategies to alter FB, especially eating rate, can be effective in increasing feed efficiency in lactating dairy cattle.  相似文献   
6.
通过试验得出了C105混凝土100 mm×100 mm×100 mm立方体非标准试件抗压强度换算系数以及C105混凝土的标准方差和强度变异系数。采用理论计算,得到了棱柱体抗压强度与立方体抗压强度的比值αc1,并与试验实测平均值进行了比较,验证了理论计算方法的可行性。此外,通过对比分析,探讨了直接外延法和引用公式法两种C105混凝土设计参数计算方法的正确性,研究结果可为C105管桩混凝土的设计和应用提供参考。  相似文献   
7.
The SAFT-γ Mie group-contribution equation of state is used to represent the fluid-phase behavior of aqueous solutions of a variety of linear, branched, and cyclic amines. New group interactions are developed in order to model the mixtures of interest, including the like and unlike interactions between alkyl primary, secondary, and tertiary amine groups (NH2, NH, N), cyclic secondary and tertiary amine groups (cNH, cN), and cyclic methine-amine groups (cCHNH, cCHN) with water (H2O). The group-interaction parameters are estimated from appropriate experimental thermodynamic data for pure amines and selected mixtures. By taking advantage of the group-contribution nature of the method, one can describe the fluid-phase behavior of mixtures of molecules comprising those groups over broad ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition. A number of aqueous solutions of amines are studied including linear, branched aliphatic, and cyclic amines. Liquid–liquid equilibria (LLE) bounded by lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) have been reported experimentally and are reproduced here with the SAFT-γ Mie approach. The main feature of the approach is the ability not only to represent accurately the experimental data employed in the parameter estimation, but also to predict the vapor–liquid, liquid–liquid, and vapor–liquid–liquid equilibria, and LCSTs with the same set of parameters. Pure compound and binary phase diagrams of diverse types of amines and their aqueous solutions are assessed in order to demonstrate the main features of the thermodynamic and fluid-phase behavior.  相似文献   
8.
持久蠕变强度外推是预测材料在高温高压环境下工作寿命的有效方法。目前常用的外推方法有等温法和参数法。这两种方法都是通过在实验室中采用较短时间的试验,获取试验数据后,通过Excel或者MATLAB等数据处理软件进行数据的拟合处理和外推计算。这些数据归纳统计和数学建模的过程有时需要耗费试验人员的大量精力。介绍了持久蠕变强度外推的软件实现方法,该功能包含在持久蠕变试验设备配备的软件中,试验完成后,软件直接根据试验结果进行数据拟合和持久蠕变强度的外推计算,无需试验数据的统计和建模,大大提高了持久蠕变强度外推计算的效率。  相似文献   
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10.
《Ceramics International》2022,48(8):10480-10485
Advanced nano-porous super thermal insulation materials are widely used in spacecraft, soler-thermal shielding, heat exchangers, photocatalytic carriers due to their low thermal conductivity. In this work, adopting dry preparation technology, nano-Al2O3, nano-SiO2, SiC and glass fibers as raw materials, novel nanometer alumina-silica insulation board (NAIB) were prepared. The preparation process was simple, safe, and reliable. In addition, the NAIB exhibited a high porosity (91.3–92.3%), small pore size (39.83–44.15 nm), low bulk density (0.22–0.26 g/cm3), better volumetric stability, and low thermal conductivity (0.031–0.050 W/(m·K) (200–800 °C)), respectively. The as-prepared NAIB could render them suitable for application as high-temperature thermal insulation materials.  相似文献   
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